Thrombolytic therapy of acute ischemic stroke during pregnancy
ABSTRACT The authors report eight pregnant women with acute ischemic stroke treated with thrombolysis (rt-PA [recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator] or urokinase). Seven women recovered. Two extracranial and two asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhages complicated treatment; one woman died of arterial dissection complicating angiography. Three patients had therapeutic abortions, two fetuses were miscarried, and two babies were delivered healthy. Although pregnant women may be treated safely with thrombolytics, risks and benefits to mother and fetus must be carefully weighed.
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Article: Thrombolytic therapy in pregnancy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pregnancy due to its physiological changes is a procoagulant state. The rate of cardiac valve prosthesis thrombosis, deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are all increased. Thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is an approved therapy for ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism and thrombosis of cardiac valve prosthesis. However, there are no data from controlled randomized trials in pregnant patients. Thrombolytic therapy has been rarely used in pregnancy with only 28 cases of rt-PA thrombolysis reported in the literature so far. Indications for rt-PA thrombolysis were stroke (n = 10), thrombosis of cardiac valve prosthesis (n = 7), pulmonary embolism (n = 7), deep venous thrombosis (n = 3), and myocardial infarction (n = 1). Remarkably, all thrombosis of cardiac valve prostheses occurred after switching from warfarin to heparin in order to prevent teratogenicity and fetal loss. Two patients died (7%) and three suffered from complications that were managed conservatively (11%). In another three patients thrombolysis was not successful. Thrombolysis complication rates were similar compared to non-pregnant patients for the above mentioned indications. Six out of the 26 fetus from surviving mothers died (23%), three of them after induced abortion for maternal reasons (12%). A likely causal relation to the prior thrombolysis could only be established in two fetal fatalities (8%). None of the live born children suffered a permanent deficit. Considering that rt-PA does not cross the placenta and taking into account that the complication rates do not exceed those of large randomised controlled trials thrombolytic therapy should not be withheld in pregnant patients in case of life-threatening or potentially debilitating thrombembolic disease.Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 07/2006; 21(3):271-6. DOI:10.1007/s11239-006-5709-z · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Women have poorer outcomes from stroke than men. Women also have risk factors that are unique, including pregnancy and hormone therapy. Hormone therapy for postmenopausal replacement increased the risk of ischemic stroke according to results of the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials. Based on the current understanding of the mechanisms of action of estrogen, the reasons for this increased risk are uncertain. One method to better understand the reasons for this increased risk is to re-evaluate estrogen's role in the neurovascular unit, simplistically comprised of the neurons, glia, and endothelial cells, as well as the processes of inflammation, and hemostasis/thrombosis. Besides the role of estrogen there are many gaps of knowledge about issues specific to women and stroke. A multidisciplinary workshop was held in August 2005 to summarize the current evidence for estrogen and, more generally, stroke in women, and to provide recommendations for future basic, preclinical, and clinical research studies. These studies may ultimately change the approach to stroke prevention and treatment in women.Stroke 10/2006; 37(9):2387-99. DOI:10.1161/01.STR.0000236053.37695.15 · 6.02 Impact Factor