In vivo skeletal imaging of 18F-fluoride with positron emission tomography reveals damage- and time-dependent responses to fatigue loading in the rat ulna.
ABSTRACT The skeletal response to damaging fatigue loading is not fully understood. We used (18)F-fluoride PET to describe the time course of the skeletal response following the creation of increasing levels of in vivo, fatigue-induced damage. The right forelimbs of 40 adult rats were loaded in vivo in cyclic compression to four levels of subfracture, fatigue displacement: 30, 45, 65, or 85% of fracture displacement. Rats were injected with a bone-seeking radionuclide ((18)F-fluoride) on days 0 (4 h), 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 18, 24, and 30, and imaged using a small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. We quantified fluoride uptake in the central 50% of the right (loaded) and left (control) forelimbs. There were significant increases in fluoride uptake in loaded forelimbs compared to control on day 0 for all displacement groups. Normalized uptake (loaded/control) reached peak levels 4 to 9 days after loading. Normalized uptake depended significantly on the level of fatigue displacement. Normalized uptake increased progressively from the 30 to the 45% displacement level (P < 0.001), and from the 45 to the 65% level (P < 0.001) but did not differ between 65 and 85% (P = 0.41). Histologically, we observed a rapid periosteal response with increased vascularity as early as day 1 and abundant woven bone formation between days 3 and 7. Periosteal and woven bone thicknesses were greater in bones subjected to more fatigue displacement. We conclude that a single bout of fatigue loading leads to a transient increase in the uptake of (18)F-fluoride, that the uptake is in proportion to the level of initial damage and is associated with increased vascularity and woven bone formation in the first week after loading.
Article: 18 F-fluoride for bone imaging.Seminars in Nuclear Medicine 02/1972; 2(1):31-7. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using our recently reported whole body PET imaging technique, we performed whole body PET studies of the skeletal system with [18F]fluoride ion in 19 patients with a range of malignant and benign skeletal conditions and in 19 normal male volunteers. The technique produces two-dimensional projection images of the entire skeletal system ("a PET bone scan"), in addition to coronal, sagittal, and axial tomographic images of the skeletal system. The tomographic images had a 13% higher lesion detection sensitivity than the projection images. Whole body PET skeletal imaging with [18F]fluoride ion is technically feasible, provides images of excellent quality, and may be coupled with more quantitatively precise kinetic PET [18F]fluoride ion studies (over limited regions of the body) when numerical estimates of skeletal [18F]fluoride ion uptake are desired. The method is potentially useful in clinical applications where the high resolution and numerical precision of PET are of particular value (e.g., in accurately defining the anatomic location and extent of lesions and in assessing changes in bone metabolism on serial studies).Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography 01/1993; 17(1):34-41. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mechanical loading presents a potent osteogenic stimulus to bone cells, but bone cells desensitize rapidly to mechanical stimulation. Resensitization must occur before the cells can transduce future mechanical signals effectively. Previous experiments show that mechanical loading protocols are more osteogenic if the load cycles are divided into several discrete bouts, separated by several hours, than if the cycles are applied in a single uninterrupted bout. We investigated the effect of discrete mechanical loading bouts on structure and biomechanical properties of the rat ulna after 16 weeks of loading. The right ulnas of 26 adult female rats were subjected to 360 load cycles/day, delivered in a haversine waveform at 17 N peak force, 3 days/week for 16 weeks. One-half of the animals (n = 13) were administered all 360 daily cycles in a single uninterrupted bout (360 x 1); the other half were administered 90 cycles four times per day (90 x 4), with 3 h between bouts. A nonloaded baseline control (BLC) group and an age-matched control (AMC) group (n = 9/group) were included in the experiment. The following measurements were collected after death: in situ mechanical strain at the ulna midshaft; ulnar length; maximum and minimum second moments of area (I(MAx) and I(MIN)) along the entire length of the ulnas (1-mm increments); and ultimate force, energy to failure, and stiffness of whole ulnas. Qualitative observations of bone morphology were made from whole bone images reconstructed from microcomputed tomography (microCT) slices. Loading according to the 360 x 1 and 90 x 4 schedules improved ultimate force by 64% and 87%, energy to failure by 94% and 165%, I(MAX) by 13% and 26% (in the middistal diaphysis), I(MIN) by 69% and 96% (in the middistal diaphysis), and reduced peak mechanical strain by 40% and 36%, respectively. The large increases in biomechanical properties occurred despite very low 5-12% gains in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). Mechanical loading is more effective in enhancing bone biomechanical and structural properties if the loads are applied in discrete bouts, separated by recovery periods (90 x 4 schedule), than if the loads are applied in a single session (360 x 1). Modest increases in aBMD and BMC can improve biomechanical properties substantially if the new bone formation is localized to the most biomechanically relevant sites, as occurs during load-induced bone formation.Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 09/2002; 17(8):1545-54. · 6.13 Impact Factor