We present the morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features of three cases of testicular and four cases of ovarian mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumors (MGSCT). The germ cells in the testicular MGSCTs morphologically differed from those in classical seminomas by lacking the typical "square off" quality of the nuclei. In contrast to the nuclei in classical seminomas, their size in testicular MGSCTs was smaller and nucleoli were inconspicuous and the cytoplasm was Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) negative. Quite on the contrary, the variability in the size of the nuclei of the germ cells in the testicular MGSCTs was more similar to that seen in the germ cells of spermatocytic seminomas. Immunohistochemically, the germ cells of MGSCTs in one case reacted positively with antibody to AE1-AE3 by paranuclear dot-like or rodlike positivity. All three testicular MGSCTs had a negative reaction with the rest of antibodies, including placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), OCT4, and c-kit protein. Ovarian MGSCT in our series differed from the testicular lesions in both the germ cell component and the sex cord component. The germ cells in all four ovarian cases had cytomorphological and immunohistochemical features identical to those in classical seminomas/dysgerminomas. They possessed the typical "square off" quality of the nuclei, which were much more blastic, with more mitoses compared with the testicular tumors in our series, and they were PLAP (4/4), OCT4 (4/4) and c-kit protein (3/4) positive immunohistochemically. The cytoplasm of the germ cells in ovarian neoplasms contained PAS positive glycogen. Germ cells in one ovarian MGSCTs showed amplification of 12p. All other germ cells were negative for amplification of 12p. All five successfully analyzed cases showed no mutation in all studied exons and exon-intron junctions in c-kit and PDFGRA genes.
"Therefore, we postulate that, in the mouse, prenatal germ cells represent two populations: the first is immunopositive for Oct-4 and disappeared in full-term fetuses, whereas the second appeared in 14 dpc and is immunopositive for M2A antigen. (Marks et al., 1999) and the Pic-1, Oct-1,2, Unc-86 (POU) transcription factor Oct-4 (Rosner et al., 1990; Hansis et al., 2000) are absent in adults, but are reexpressed in many germ cell tumors (Giwercman et al., 1991; Meng et al., 1996; Cheng, 2004; Michal et al., 2006; Sonne et al., 2006). Oct-4 has been reported to represent an early transcription factor in the mouse that is restricted to PGCs from about day 8 onwards (Schöler et al., 1990; Pesce et al., 1998). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prenatal differentiation of male and female gonads of the mouse was investigated both morphologically and immunohistochemically. Sexual dimorphism could be detected as early as 12 days post-coitum (dpc) by the appearance of the primary elements of the tunica albuginea and positive immunoreactivity for anti-Muellerian hormone in the Sertoli cells of the male gonad. Male germ cells passed two waves of mitotic activity, a first wave between 12 and 14 dpc, which is followed by apoptosis of the old germ cell generation, and a second wave between 17 and 20 dpc. Oct-4 was expressed as a juxtanuclear ring in the cytoplasm of germ cells up to 17 dpc. Subsequently, it was down-regulated and completely disappeared in 20 dpc full-term fetuses. By contrast, M2A antigen revealed only a weak immunoreaction in some germ cells of 14 dpc gonads, but exhibited strong signals in all germ cells of 20 dpc full-term fetuses. Therefore, we postulate that, in the mouse, prenatal germ cells represent two populations: the first is immunopositive for Oct-4 and disappeared in full-term fetuses, whereas the second appeared in 14 dpc and is immunopositive for M2A antigen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, 60 gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach were analyzed to elucidate the possible relation of their morphology to the mutation status of KIT and PDGFRA genes. The patients included 27 men and 33 women with a mean age of 63.8 years (range, 12-92 years). Only 1 tumor occurred before the age of 21 years. KIT mutations were detected in 31 cases (51.7%), PDGFRA mutations in 22 cases (36.7%), and 7 cases (11.7%) were KIT and PDGFRA wild type. When the mutation status was correlated with histologic features of the tumors, epithelioid or mixed epithelioid/spindle cell pattern and mast cell infiltration were found as the most reliable signs of PDGFRA mutation. Neoplastic rhabdoid cells and multinucleated giant cells, also previously reported as features of PDGFRA-mutated gastrointestinal stromal tumors, seemed to be less specific but still helpful markers in our study. Finally, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and myxoid stroma do not seem to be valuable histologic signs.
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