Effects of taurine on rat behaviors in three anxiety models
ABSTRACT In our previous studies using an elevated plus-maze test in mice, taurine was shown to present an anxiolytic-like effect after single and repeated administration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anxiolytic and behavioral effects of taurine on rats in the open field, hole-board, and social interaction test compared to the positive control diazepam. Taurine (14, 42, and 126 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 30 min before the tests. In the social interaction and hole-board tests, taurine (42 mg/kg) significantly increased social interaction time and the number and duration of head-dipping. In the open field test, taurine (126 mg/kg, i.p.) presented anxiolytic-like effects by increasing the number of center entries, time spent in the central area and the anti-thigmotactic score while having no effect on the locomotor activity. Results from these experiments suggest that taurine produces an anxiolytic-like effect in these animal models and may act as a modulator or anti-anxiety agent in the central nervous system.
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- "Both times of exposure and EtOH concentration were selected based on those described in the literature, which showed alterations on anxiety-like behavioral responses (Mathur and Guo, 2011) and also on distinct neurochemical parameters of this species (Gerlai et al., 2000; Dlugos and Rabin, 2003; Rico et al., 2007; Chatterjee and Gerlai, 2009; Rosemberg et al., 2010a). The acute TAU treatments were performed as described by Rosemberg et al. (2010a) and the concentrations chosen were based on previous studies, varying from 0.33 to 3.2 mM (Wu et al., 2005; Kong et al., 2006; Rosemberg et al., 2010b). TAU solutions were prepared just before the experiments and buffered to pH 7.0 using 0.1 N NaOH. "
ABSTRACT: Taurine (TAU) is an amino sulfonic acid that plays protective roles against neurochemical impairments induced by ethanol (EtOH). Mounting evidence shows the applicability of zebrafish for evaluating locomotor parameters and anxiety-like behavioral phenotypes after EtOH exposure in a large scale manner. In this study, we assess the effects of TAU pretreatment on the behavior of zebrafish in the open tank after acute 1% EtOH (v/v) exposure (20 and 60 min of duration) and on brain alcohol contents. The exposure for 20 min exerted significant anxiolytic effects, which were prevented by 42, 150, and 400 mg/L TAU. Conversely, the 60-min condition induced depressant/sedative effects, in which the changes on vertical activity were associated to modifications on the exploratory profile. Although all TAU concentrations kept locomotor parameters at basal levels, 150 mg/L TAU, did not prevent the impairment on vertical activity of EtOH. Despite the higher brain EtOH content detected in the 60-min exposure, 42, 150, and 400 mg/L TAU attenuated the increase of alcohol content in EtOH group. In conclusion, our data suggest that both protocols of acute EtOH exposure induce significant changes in the spatio-temporal behavior of zebrafish and that TAU may exert a preventive role by antagonizing the effects induced by EtOH possibly due to its neuromodulatory role and also by decreasing brain EtOH levels. The hormetic dose-response of TAU on vertical exploration suggests a complex interaction between TAU and EtOH in the central nervous system.Neuropharmacology 05/2012; 63(4):613-23. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.05.009 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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- "Video recordings of each session were used to measure the percentage of time spent in the center of the arena, which is a measure of anxiety . The equipment was cleaned with 70% alcohol and water between trials. "
ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by hypokinesia, but also mood and cognitive disorders. Neuropathologically, PD involves loss of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) and secondary non-dopaminergic abnormalities. Inflammation may contribute to PD pathogenesis, evident by increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PD onset has been positively associated with dietary intake of omega-(n)-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). On the other hand, omega-(n)-3 PUFA may benefit PD. One of these n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), is a neuroprotective lipid with anti-inflammatory properties, but its neuroprotective effects in PD are unknown. Thus, we presently tested the hypothesis that EPA can protect against behavioral impairments, neurodegeneration and inflammation in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-probenecid (MPTP-P) mouse model of PD. MPTP-P injections caused hypokinesia in the rotorod and pole test, hyperactivity in the open field, and impaired mice on the cued version (procedural memory) of the Morris water maze. MPTP-P caused a loss of nigrostriatal DA and altered neurochemistry in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, striatal levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were increased, while the brain n-3/n-6 lipid profile remained unaltered. Feeding mice a 0.8% ethyl-eicosapentaenoate (E-EPA) diet prior to MPTP-P injections increased brain EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or n-6 PUFA. The diet attenuated the hypokinesia induced by MPTP-P and ameliorated the procedural memory deficit. E-EPA also suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, E-EPA did not prevent nigrostriatal DA loss. Based on this partial protective effect of E-EPA, further testing may be warranted.Behavioural brain research 01/2012; 226(2):386-96. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2011.09.033 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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- "Traditionally, brain taurine is thought to function as an osmoregulator in cells (cell volume regulation), but has also been implicated in neuromodulation, possibly functioning as a neurotransmitter. Data exist suggesting that taurine functions as an anxiolytic agent (Kong et al., 2006) and interacts with the GABA A receptor (Jia et al., 2008). These data make sense given that it has long been recognized that taurine and GABA are structurally similar and may share transporters in the brain. "
ABSTRACT: Manganese (Mn) accumulation in the brain has been shown to alter the neurochemistry of the basal ganglia. Mn-induced alterations in dopamine biology are fairly well understood, but recently more evidence has emerged characterizing the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in this dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine if the previously observed Mn-induced increase in extracellular GABA (GABA(EC)) was due to altered GABA transporter (GAT) function, and whether Mn perturbs other amino acid neurotransmitters, namely taurine and glycine (known modulators of GABA). Extracellular GABA, taurine, and glycine concentrations were collected from the striatum of control (CN) or Mn-exposed Sprague-Dawley rats using in vivo microdialysis, and the GAT inhibitor nipecotic acid (NA) was used to probe GAT function. Tissue and extracellular Mn levels were significantly increased, and the Fe:Mn ratio was decreased 36-fold in the extracellular space due to Mn-exposure. NA led to a 2-fold increase in GABA(EC) of CNs, a response that was attenuated by Mn. Taurine responded inversely to GABA, and a novel 10-fold increase in taurine was observed after the removal of NA in CNs. Mn blunted this response and nearly abolished extracellular taurine throughout collection. Striatal taurine transporter (Slc6a6) mRNA levels were significantly increased with Mn-exposure, and Mn significantly increased (3)H-Taurine uptake after 3-min exposure in primary rat astrocytes. These data suggest that Mn increases GABA(EC) by inhibiting the function of GAT, and that perturbed taurine homeostasis potentially impacts neural function by jeopardizing the osmoregulatory and neuromodulatory functions of taurine in the brain.NeuroToxicology 12/2010; 31(6):639-46. DOI:10.1016/j.neuro.2010.09.002 · 3.05 Impact Factor