In our previous studies using an elevated plus-maze test in mice, taurine was shown to present an anxiolytic-like effect after single and repeated administration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anxiolytic and behavioral effects of taurine on rats in the open field, hole-board, and social interaction test compared to the positive control diazepam. Taurine (14, 42, and 126 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 30 min before the tests. In the social interaction and hole-board tests, taurine (42 mg/kg) significantly increased social interaction time and the number and duration of head-dipping. In the open field test, taurine (126 mg/kg, i.p.) presented anxiolytic-like effects by increasing the number of center entries, time spent in the central area and the anti-thigmotactic score while having no effect on the locomotor activity. Results from these experiments suggest that taurine produces an anxiolytic-like effect in these animal models and may act as a modulator or anti-anxiety agent in the central nervous system.
"Taurine augments the effects of sex steroids in the promotion of spermatogonial proliferation and/or meiosis and plays important roles in spermatogenesis in eel . Second, in mammals taurine is known to promote social interactions and reduce 5-hydroxytryptamine ; 5-hydroxytryptamine modulates aggressive behaviors in many species including fish . There is some indication that stress resulting from subordination due to low social status promotes bile retention (and thus bile acid retention) in subordinate cichlid fish (Archocentrus nigrofasciatum) . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemical structures of several urinary reproductive pheromones in fish have been identified, and their role in the chemical communication of reproductive condition is well characterized. On the contrary, the role of chemical communication in signalling of social/territorial status in fish is poorly understood. Fathead minnows are an example of a fish species whose life history traits appear conducive to evolution of chemical communication systems that confer information about social/territorial status. Male reproduction in this species is dependent upon their ability to acquire and defend a high quality nesting territory, and to attract a female to the nest. We hypothesized that fathead minnow males use visual and urine-derived chemical cues to signal territorial status. To test this hypothesis, effects of territorial acquisition on male-specific secondary sex characteristics (SSCs) and urine volumes were first assessed. Second, frequencies of male urination in varying social contexts were examined. Finally, nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics was used to identify urinary metabolites that were differentially excreted in the urine of territorial versus non-territorial males. The expression of SSCs, sperm, and urine volumes increased with territory acquisition, and either remained unchanged or decreased in non-territorial males. Frequency of male urination increased significantly in the presence of females (but not males), suggesting that females are the main target of the urinary signals. Territorial and non-territorial males had distinct urinary metabolomic profiles. An unforeseen finding was that one could discern future territorial status of males, based on their initial metabolomic profiles. Bile acids and volatile amines were identified as potential chemical signals of social status in the fathead minnow. The finding that trimethylamine (a fishy smelling volatile amine) may be a social cue is particularly interesting, because it is known to bind trace amine-associated receptors, indicating that these receptors may play role in chemical signalling of social status in fish.
PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e46579. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0046579 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"These sequelae of events have been associated with mood and anxiety related disorders . Conversely, taurine has been proposed to exert neuroprotective actions in neural tissue , and act as an anti-anxiety agent in the central nervous system . Present results are in full agreement with a recent study performed by Barbosa Neto and colleagues . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The central endocannabinoid system (ECS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis mediate individual responses to emotionally salient stimuli. Their altered developmental adjustment may relate to the emergence of emotional disturbances. Although environmental influences regulate the individual phenotype throughout the entire lifespan, their effects may result particularly persistent during plastic developmental stages (e.g. prenatal life and adolescence). Here, we investigated whether prenatal stress--in the form of gestational exposure to corticosterone supplemented in the maternal drinking water (100 mg/l) during the last week of pregnancy--combined with a pharmacological stimulation of the ECS during adolescence (daily fatty acid amide hydrolase URB597 i.p. administration--0.4 mg/kg--between postnatal days 29-38), influenced adult mouse emotional behaviour and brain metabolism measured through in vivo quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Compared to control mice, URB597-treated subjects showed, in the short-term, reduced locomotion and, in the long term, reduced motivation to execute operant responses to obtain palatable rewards paralleled by reduced levels of inositol and taurine in the prefrontal cortex. Adult mice exposed to prenatal corticosterone showed increased behavioural anxiety and reduced locomotion in the elevated zero maze, and altered brain metabolism (increased glutamate and reduced taurine in the hippocampus; reduced inositol and N-Acetyl-Aspartate in the hypothalamus). Present data further corroborate the view that prenatal stress and pharmacological ECS stimulation during adolescence persistently regulate emotional responses in adulthood. Yet, whilst we hypothesized these factors to be interactive in nature, we observed that the consequences of prenatal corticosterone administration were independent from those of ECS drug-induced stimulation during adolescence.
PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e41821. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0041821 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Both times of exposure and EtOH concentration were selected based on those described in the literature, which showed alterations on anxiety-like behavioral responses (Mathur and Guo, 2011) and also on distinct neurochemical parameters of this species (Gerlai et al., 2000; Dlugos and Rabin, 2003; Rico et al., 2007; Chatterjee and Gerlai, 2009; Rosemberg et al., 2010a). The acute TAU treatments were performed as described by Rosemberg et al. (2010a) and the concentrations chosen were based on previous studies, varying from 0.33 to 3.2 mM (Wu et al., 2005; Kong et al., 2006; Rosemberg et al., 2010b). TAU solutions were prepared just before the experiments and buffered to pH 7.0 using 0.1 N NaOH. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taurine (TAU) is an amino sulfonic acid that plays protective roles against neurochemical impairments induced by ethanol (EtOH). Mounting evidence shows the applicability of zebrafish for evaluating locomotor parameters and anxiety-like behavioral phenotypes after EtOH exposure in a large scale manner. In this study, we assess the effects of TAU pretreatment on the behavior of zebrafish in the open tank after acute 1% EtOH (v/v) exposure (20 and 60 min of duration) and on brain alcohol contents. The exposure for 20 min exerted significant anxiolytic effects, which were prevented by 42, 150, and 400 mg/L TAU. Conversely, the 60-min condition induced depressant/sedative effects, in which the changes on vertical activity were associated to modifications on the exploratory profile. Although all TAU concentrations kept locomotor parameters at basal levels, 150 mg/L TAU, did not prevent the impairment on vertical activity of EtOH. Despite the higher brain EtOH content detected in the 60-min exposure, 42, 150, and 400 mg/L TAU attenuated the increase of alcohol content in EtOH group. In conclusion, our data suggest that both protocols of acute EtOH exposure induce significant changes in the spatio-temporal behavior of zebrafish and that TAU may exert a preventive role by antagonizing the effects induced by EtOH possibly due to its neuromodulatory role and also by decreasing brain EtOH levels. The hormetic dose-response of TAU on vertical exploration suggests a complex interaction between TAU and EtOH in the central nervous system.
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