Neuroprotection against focal ischemic brain injury by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist rosiglitazone.
ABSTRACT Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) is a nuclear membrane-associated transcription factor that governs the expression of various inflammatory genes. PPAR-gamma agonists protect peripheral organs from ischemic injury. In the present study, we investigated whether the PPAR-gamma agonist rosiglitazone is neuroprotective against focal ischemic brain injury. C57/B6 mice underwent 1.5-h middle cerebral artery occlusion, and received either vehicle or rosiglitazone treatment of 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6 or 12 mg/kg (n = 9 per group). Cerebral infarct volume, neurological function, expression of pro-inflammatory proteins and neutrophil accumulation were assessed after ischemia and reperfusion. At 48 h after ischemia, infarct volume was significantly decreased with 3-12 mg/kg of rosiglitazone, with a time window of efficacy of 2 h after ischemia at the optimal dose (6 mg/kg). Neutrophil accumulation was significantly decreased in the brain parenchyma of rosiglitazone-treated mice. Ischemia-induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was markedly reduced in rosiglitazone-treated brains, as determined using proteomic-array analysis. Rosiglitazone treatment improved neurological function at 7 days after ischemia. Moreover, in cultured cortical primary microglia, rosiglitazone attenuated inflammatory responses by decreasing lipopolysaccharide-induced release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6. These results suggest that the PPAR-gamma agonist rosiglitazone has neuroprotective properties that are at least partially mediated via anti-inflammatory actions, and is thus a potential novel therapeutic agent for stroke.
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes is associated with increased risk of mortality as a consequence of acute myocardial infarction. This study determined whether rosiglitazone (ROSI) could reduce myocardial infarction after ischemia/reperfusion injury. Male Lewis rats were anesthetized, and the left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated for 30 minutes. After reperfusion for 24 hours, the ischemic and infarct sizes were determined. ROSI at 1 and 3 mg/kg IV reduced infarct size by 30% and 37%, respectively (P<0.01 versus vehicle). Pretreatment with ROSI (3 mg. kg(-1). d(-1) PO) for 7 days also reduced infarct size by 24% (P<0.01). ROSI also improved ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction. Left ventricular systolic pressure and positive and negative maximal values of the first derivative of left ventricular pressure (dP/dt) were significantly improved in ROSI-treated rats. ROSI reduced the accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in the ischemic heart by 40% and 43%, respectively (P<0.01). Ischemia/reperfusion induced upregulation of CD11b/CD18 and downregulation of L-selectin on neutrophils and monocytes; these effects were significantly attenuated in ROSI-treated animals. Likewise, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in ischemic hearts was markedly diminished by ROSI, as was the ischemia/reperfusion-stimulated upregulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. ROSI reduced myocardial infarction and improved contractile dysfunction caused by ischemia/reperfusion injury. The cardioprotective effect of ROSI was most likely due to inhibition of the inflammatory response.Circulation 11/2001; 104(21):2588-94. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are a new class of oral antidiabetic agents. They selectively enhance or partially mimic certain actions of insulin, causing a slowly generated antihyperglycaemic effect in Type 2 (noninsulin dependent) diabetic patients. This is often accompanied by a reduction in circulating concentrations of insulin, triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids. TZDs act additively with other types of oral antidiabetic agents (suphonylureas, metformin and acarbose) and reduce the insulin dosage required in insulin-treated patients. The glucose-lowering effect of TZDs is attributed to increased peripheral glucose disposal and decreased hepatic glucose output. This is achieved substantively by the activation of a specific nuclear receptor - the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), which increases transcription of certain insulin-sensitive genes. To date one TZD, troglitazone, has been introduced into clinical use (in Japan, USA and UK in 1997). This was suspended after 2 months in the UK pending further investigation of adverse effects on liver function. TZDs have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in a range of insulin-resistant states including obesity, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In Type 2 diabetes, the TZDs offer a new type of oral therapy to reduce insulin resistance and assist glycaemic control.Diabetic Medicine 04/1999; 16(3):179-92. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The proto-oncogenes bcl-2 and bcl-x-long have been shown to suppress apoptotic cell death in a variety of in vitro systems and cell lines, including neurons. An alternatively spliced from of bcl-x, bcl-x-short, is a promoter of apoptotic death. Whether these genes are induced after ischemia or play any role in determining the fate of ischemic neurons is unknown. To begin to address this issue, we studied the expression of bcl-2, and bcl-x mRNA and protein after global ischemia in the rat. Ischemia was induced in isoflurane-anesthetized rats by the four-vessel occlusion method. mRNA expression was studied by Northern blot analysis at 24 h after ischemia and by in situ hybridization at 2, 4, 8, 24, and 72 h after 15 min of global ischemia. Protein expression was studied using both immunocytochemistry at 4, 8, 16, 24, and 72 h after ischemia and Western blot analysis from tissue harvested at 16, 24, and 72 h after ischemia. Western blots showed that bcl-x-long is the predominant form of bcl-x protein expressed in both normal and ischemic brain. Both bcl-2 and bcl-x-long mRNA were expressed in CA1, CA3, and the molecular layer of the dentate after ischemia. However, bcl-2 and bcl-x protein were expressed only in CA3 and dentate. Thus, while bcl-2 and bcl-x-long mRNA were expressed in both surviving and dying neurons, their proteins were expressed in neurons destined to survive. These results support potential roles for these two apoptosis suppressor proteins in promoting survival after cerebral ischemia.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 02/1997; 17(1):2-10. · 5.40 Impact Factor