Article

Correlations between motor performance and cognitive functions in children born < 1250 g at school age.

Child Development Centre, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Switzerland.
Neuropediatrics (Impact Factor: 1.19). 02/2006; 37(1):6-12. DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-923840
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Very low birth weight born children manifest a higher prevalence of motor and cognitive impairments than term children. Seventy-four prospectively enrolled children born < 1250 g underwent testing of motor (Zurich neuromotor assessment ZNA: timed motor performances and associated movements) and cognitive functions (Kaufman-ABC) at age six years. Children with cerebral palsy or mental retardation were excluded. Adaptive motor tasks (pegboard and dynamic balance) and visuomotor cognitive functions were specifically impaired, and a distinct correlation pattern between motor and cognitive abilities was detected. The adaptive fine motor task (pegboard) correlated with visuomotor functions of the Kaufman-ABC ("triangles", r = 0.35; "matrix analogies", r = 0.39), while pure motor tasks of the ZNA (repetitive, alternating, and sequential movements) did not in spite of impaired motor performance. Timed motor performance below the 10th percentile correlated strongly with cognitive delay (IQ < 85: adaptive fine motor: OR 6.0 [95% CI] 4.7-7.3; adaptive gross motor: OR 7.0 [CI 5.6-8.4]; static balance: OR 9.6 [CI 8.2-11.0]). In conclusion, motor deficits in children born < 1250 g without severe disabilities correlate with specific cognitive impairments, in particular of the visuomotor domain. The correlation pattern may indicate specific dysfunction in visuomotor transformation, the intermediate process between visual-perceptual input and motor output. Early assessment of both motor and cognitive functions using standardized assessment tools is important to determine the extent and combination of specific developmental disturbances and to tailor therapeutic intervention.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
177 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To explore relations between aspects of upper-body spatiotemporal movement organization and intelligence in children born preterm at school age. METHODS:: Three-dimensional (3D) kinematic recordings of arm and head movements during a unimanual precision task were related to performance on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition, in a sample of 32 children born preterm (gestational age, mean: 31.5 weeks [range: 22-35 weeks]; birth weight, mean: 1699 g [range: 404-2962 g]) at 6 years to 8 years with no diagnosed cognitive, sensory, or motor impairments compared with 40 age-matched control children born fullterm. RESULTS:: In the children born preterm, upper-limb movement duration and segmentation of movement trajectories were significantly associated with full-scale intelligence quotient independent of gestational age (GA) and sex. These effects pertained to the preferred side, characterized by more effective movement organization being linked with increased intelligence scores. The same relations were not seen in the controls. Within the children born preterm, a significant effect of GA was also found for some aspects of upper-limb movement organization. Full-scale intelligence quotient was within normal limits for both groups but significantly lower in the preterm (mean: 94.5 [range: 72-120]) compared with the fullterm (mean: 101.7 [range: 76-119]) born children. CONCLUSIONS:: The findings demonstrate that, independent of GA, the spatiotemporal organization of upper-limb movements is partly associated with cognitive performance in children born preterm.
    Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP 05/2013; · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies have shown important associations between low birth weight (BW), a variety of morbidities, and reduced motor performance. Using a twin sample, this study aimed to verify (a) the magnitude of the association between BW and neuromotor performance (NMP); (b) if the NMP of twins is within the normal range; and (c) if monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins' intra-pair similarities in NMP are of equal magnitude. We sampled 191 twins (78 MZ; 113 DZ distinguished through their DNA), aged 8.9 ± 3.1 years with an average BW of 2246.3 ± 485.4 g; gestational characteristics and sports practices were also assessed. The Zurich Neuromotor test battery, comprising five main tasks, was used; Twins NMP assessments were highly reliable (intra-rater reliability: 0.76-0.99). BW accounted for up to 11% of the total variance of NMP across the zygosity groups. Between 32.7% and 76.9% of children were below the 10th percentile for tasks requiring timing of performance (purely motor task, adaptive fine motor task, dynamic, and static balance), while less than 6.4% of children were below the 10th percentile for associated movements. MZ twins NMP intraclass correlations showed greater similarity than DZ twins in three of the five tasks, suggesting the importance of genetic factors in NMP.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 09/2013; · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AIM: To assess patterns of change for different neuromotor functions in very low birth weight (VLBW) children during school age and to identify factors associated with improvement. METHODS: In a longitudinal study, we examined 65 prospectively enrolled VLBW children (38 female, 59%) without cerebral palsy at age six and ten years. Measures included the evaluation of timed motor performance and motor overflow (MO) for the motor components of the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (pure motor-, adaptive fine and gross motor tasks, static balance) and a standardized neurological examination. Variables associated with improvement were assessed by multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: Between six and ten years, adaptive fine motor tasks (40% versus 17% of children scoring below 10(th) percentile) and MO (77% versus 55%) improved significantly (both p<0.01), while all other components remained stable (pure motor 23% versus 25%, adaptive gross motor 26% versus 34%, static balance 18% versus 20%, respectively). Mild neurological abnormalities at six years of age were associated with less improvement. CONCLUSION: Neuromotor functions improve in some children potentially reflecting catch up of maturational delay. However, the majority of neuromotor functions remain abnormal in a significant proportion of VLBW children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Acta Paediatrica 04/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
2 Downloads
Available from