Partial treatment interruption of protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens in HIV-infected children.
ABSTRACT Treatment guidelines for HIV-infected children recommend using combinations of reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs). Successful suppression of HIV replication and adherence to these regimens are often suboptimal because of multiple factors. For patients with detectable viremia and limited treatment options, therapy simplification consisting of RTIs, referred to as partial treatment interruption (PTI), may represent a temporizing option. We describe a cohort of 26 HIV-infected children who underwent treatment simplification by discontinuing the PI and continuing therapy with 2 or more RTIs. The subjects, who were identified retrospectively, were followed for a period of 24 to 96 weeks. Data collected included clinical information, viral load, and CD4T lymphocyte percentage (CD4%) at baseline and 24, 48, and 96 weeks after PTI. Twenty-six, 21, and 11 patients were evaluated at 24, 48, and 96 weeks, respectively. No child had Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-defined disease progression, and there were no significant changes in viral loads (P > 0.5) across all study intervals after interruption of the PIs. Although most children maintained a CD4% > 15%, comparisons of CD4% at 24 and 48 weeks demonstrated a statistically significant decrease compared with baseline. Therapy simplification by PTI may provide a practical option in patients intolerant of or failing PI-based highly active antiretroviral therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Three decades into the HIV/AIDS epidemic there is a growing cohort of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents globally. Their survival into adolescence and beyond represent one of the major successes in the battle against the disease that has claimed the lives of millions of children. This population is diverse and there are unique issues related to antiretroviral treatment and management. Drawing from the literature and experience, this paper discusses several broad areas related to antiretroviral management, including: 1) diverse presentation of HIV, (2) use of combination antiretroviral therapy including in the setting of co-morbidities and rapid growth and development, (3) challenges of cART, including nonadherence, resistance, and management of the highly treatment-experienced adolescent patient, (4) additional unique concerns and management issues related to PHIV-infected adolescents, including the consequences of longterm inflammation, risk of transmission, and transitions to adult care. In each section, the experience in both resource-rich and limited settings are discussed with the aim of highlighting the differences and importantly the similarities, to share lessons learnt and provide insight into the multi-faceted approaches that may be needed to address the challenges faced by this unique and resilient population.Journal of the International AIDS Society 06/2013; 16:18579. · 4.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Studies on drug interruption have provided new insights on the adaptive evolution of rebounding HIV-1 during antiretroviral pressure. We investigated the origin of new viral variants after discontinuation of protease (PR) inhibitors as a treatment remained exclusively based on reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and whether drug susceptibility, viral fitness, and neutralizing antibodies could be major driving forces for the evolution of virus populations. The study comprised 3 treatment-experienced subjects. Phylogenetic analysis of the PR, reverse transcriptase, and the viral envelope were carried out to ascertain the origin of the new viral variants with samples obtained over a 10-year period before and after a PR inhibitor withdrawal. In addition, drug susceptibility, replication capacity, and neutralization assays were performed. New viral variants from all 3 subjects were derived through recombination with ancestral quasispecies. Computerized recombination models confirmed these results. Recombination was demonstrated by increased replication capacity, decreased drug susceptibility, and neutralization of ancestral virus envelope by contemporaneous plasma samples. These findings demonstrate the relevance of HIV-1 reservoirs in adaptive evolution throughout recombination in response to selective pressure, such as antiretroviral therapy and immune responses. This result might assist in the design of new treatment strategies for patients experiencing treatment failure.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 03/2011; 57(2):109-17. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The treatment and prognosis of pediatric HIV infection in the developed world has been transformed with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Perinatally infected children are now living into adulthood, changing the face of this epidemic from one of pessimism to one of hope. However, this transformation has brought with it many unforeseen challenges. In this review, we attempt to highlight key issues in the management of HIV-infected children, such as adherence, treatment strategies, drug resistance, and toxicities. We trust that the experience that we have accumulated can be successfully implemented in countries where treatment is urgently needed.Current Infectious Disease Reports 01/2006; 8(4):324-331.