Potential barriers to activity participation were surveyed among adolescent girls and corroborated with other reported information.
Among 2379 black and white girls enrolled in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study since ages 9 or 10 yr, those reporting weekly activity frequency as "sometimes" or "rarely" were surveyed for three consecutive years from ages 16 or 17 yr. Barriers to activity were assessed using a 10-item questionnaire. Responses were cross-examined with other reported information. Race-specific longitudinal regression examined the impact of barrier scores on activity levels and also potential factors having an impact on barrier scores.
Approximately half of the cohort was screened as "sedentary" with a trend toward an increasing proportion with age. Lack of time was cited by 60% of sedentary girls as the leading barrier to activity participation for all 3 yr. Other frequently cited barriers to activity included "I'm too tired" and "They don't interest me." No differences were seen in hours at work or in household chores between those who cited lack of time and those who did not. Barrier score was a significant predictor of habitual activity scores. For both races, body mass index and "would rather do other things than exercise" were significant predictors of barriers, but work, parental education, TV watching, and childbirth were not significant.
Self-reported barriers to activity participation among sedentary girls were shown to be primarily internal and uncorrelated with other corresponding external factors.
"The potential implications of questioning the existing paradigm are quite profound if found to be supported through further investigation. Numerous studies report the most commonly cited barriers to exercise participation include time availability as well as access to specialised equipment and/or facilities; such as travel time and costs etc. (Sallis et al., 2000; McCromack et al., 2004; Kimm et al., 2006; Daskapan et al., 2006; Gomez-Lopez et al., 2010). In light of the concept discussed herein, persons wishing to engage in exercise in order to improve the noted markers of health and fitness might be able to select from a wide range of potential exercise modalities in order to achieve this. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper discusses and challenges the current opinion that exercise adaptation is generally defined by modality; resistance exercise (RE), or aerobic exercise (AE). In presenting a strong body of recent research which demonstrably challenges these perceptions we suggest alternate hypotheses towards physiological adaptation which is hinged more upon the effort than the exercise modality. Practical implications of this interpretation of exercise adaptation might effect change in exercise adherence since existing barriers to exercise of time, costs, specialized equipment, etc. become nullified. In presenting the evidence herein we suggest that lay persons wishing to attain the health and fitness (including strength and muscle hypertrophy) benefits of exercise can choose from a wide range of potential exercise modalities so long as the effort is high. Future research should consider this hypothesis by directly comparing RE and AE for acute responses and chronic adaptations.
Journal of Human Kinetics 12/2014; 44. DOI:10.2478/hukin-2014-0119 · 1.03 Impact Factor
"Both the questionnaire and interviews supported the concept of other hobbies or commitments taking priority over team sports, consistent with previous research [21, 35]. However, Biddle et al. previously suggested that, although girls may be completing other activities, there is an underlying explanation for this choice, that girls, from an early age, have been socialised into believing sports are not in their nature . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given the clear benefits of regular physical activity (such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity, as well as other benefits including those related to mental health), exploration of the reasons that adolescent girls give for not taking part in team sports may be particularly valuable for enhancing later rates of participation. We combined questionnaires (n = 60) and semistructured interviews (n = 6) to assess the barriers that prevent 15-16-year-old girls from participating in extracurricular team games and what can be done to overcome these barriers and improve physical activity levels. Four barriers became prominent as to why girls in this sample do not participate: Internal Factors, Existing Stereotypes, Other Hobbies and Teachers. Methods to overcome these barriers were identified; changing teachers' attitudes and shifting the media's focus away from male sport. Following the successful summer Olympics and Paralympics in the UK, and the resulting positive focus on some of the nation's female athletes, a shift in focus may be possible. However, this needs to be maintained to allow girls more opportunities, role models and motivation to participate in sport.
"Our findings coincide with other studies that have been done both with teenager secondary education students and university students. A proof of this is that the limitation of time has been the greatest obstacle in adolescent students (Grubbs and Carter, 2002; Gyurcsik et al., 2004; Kimm et al., 2006; Leslie et al., 2001; Wang et al., 2009). This was, in some cases, due to school tasks, social and family support and consequently the increase in responsibilities , self-esteem, tiredness, or just the lack of interest in physical exercise. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main goal of this research is to study in detail the main characteristics of university students in order to find out the reasons why they have adopted an inactive lifestyle. In order to do so, a questionnaire on the analysis of sports habits and lifestyle was given to 323 students. They were taken from a representative sample of 1834 students. These 323 students had pointed out at the moment of the fieldwork, not having practiced any sport in their spare time. Our findings point out that there are diverse reasons for this. On one hand, reasons referred to as external barriers such as lack of time, on the other hand, internal barriers such as not liking the physical activity, not seeing its practicality or usefulness, feeling lazy or with apathy, or thinking that they are not competent in this type of activities. Other reasons such as the lack of social support are grouped within the external barriers. Finally, it is important to stress that there are also differences based on gender with respect to motivation. Key pointsExternal barriers prevail in university students. The lack of time is among the most highlighted ones.Statistically significant results have been found regarding the gender variable.The results are very important since they are considered to be valuable information for university institutions when guiding and diversifying their offer of physical and sport activities. Also as a guide in the design of support policies and national sport management guidelines.
Journal of sports science & medicine 09/2010; 9(3):374-81. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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