Article

Delirium in older persons.

Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 04/2006; 354(11):1157-65. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra052321
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) provides detailed information on clinical, functional and cognitive aspects of older patients and is especially useful for assessing frail individuals. Although a large proportion of hospitalized older adults demonstrate a high level of complexity, CGA was not developed specifically for this setting. Our aim was to evaluate the application of a CGA model for the clinical characterization and prognostic prediction of hospitalized older adults. This was a prospective observational study including 746 patients aged 60 years and over who were admitted to a geriatric ward of a university hospital between January 2009 and December 2011, in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The proposed CGA was applied to evaluate all patients at admission. The primary outcome was in-hospital death, and the secondary outcomes were delirium, nosocomial infections, functional decline and length of stay. Multivariate binary logistic regression was performed to assess independent factors associated with these outcomes, including socio-demographic, clinical, functional, cognitive, and laboratory variables. Impairment in ten CGA components was particularly investigated: polypharmacy, activities of daily living (ADL) dependency, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) dependency, depression, dementia, delirium, urinary incontinence, falls, malnutrition, and poor social support. The studied patients were mostly women (67.4%), and the mean age was 80.5+/-7.9 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the following independent factors associated with in-hospital death: IADL dependency (OR=4.02; CI=1.52-10.58; p=.005); ADL dependency (OR=2.39; CI=1.25-4.56; p=.008); malnutrition (OR=2.80; CI=1.63-4.83; p<.001); poor social support (OR=5.42; CI=2.93-11.36; p<.001); acute kidney injury (OR=3.05; CI=1.78-5.27; p<.001); and the presence of pressure ulcers (OR=2.29; CI=1.04-5.07; p=.041). ADL dependency was independently associated with both delirium incidence and nosocomial infections (respectively: OR=3.78; CI=2.30-6.20; p<.001 and OR=2.30; CI=1.49-3.49; p<.001). The number of impaired CGA components was also found to be associated with in-hospital death (p<.001), delirium incidence (p<.001) and nosocomial infections (p=.005). Additionally, IADL dependency, malnutrition and history of falls predicted longer hospitalizations. There were no significant changes in overall functional status during the hospital stay. CGA identified patients at higher risk of in-hospital death and adverse outcomes, of which those with functional dependence, malnutrition and poor social support were foremost.
    BMC Geriatrics 12/2014; 14(1):129. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: Delirious individuals are at increased risk for functional decline, institutionalization and death. Delirium is also associated with other geriatric syndromes, behavioral care issues, and new illnesses. The objectives of this study were to determine how often certain geriatric syndromes, care issues, and additional diagnoses occur in delirious individuals, and to see whether they correlate with worse functional recovery. Methods: Consecutive delirious older medical in-patients (n = 343) were followed for the occurrence of geriatric syndromes (falls, pressure ulcers, poor oral intake, and aspiration), care issues (refusing treatments or care, need for sitters, security services, physical restraints, and new neuroleptic medications) and additional diagnoses occurring after the third day of admission. Poor functional recovery was defined by any one of death, permanent institutionalization or increased dependence for activities of daily living (ADLs) at discharge or three months after discharge from hospital, elicited through chart review or a follow-up telephone interview. Results: Poor functional recovery was seen in 237 (69%) delirious patients. Geriatric syndromes and additional illnesses were common and associated with poor functional recovery (falls in 21%, adjusted OR 2.27; possible aspiration in 26%, adjusted OR 3.06; poor oral intake in 49%, adjusted OR = 2.31; additional illnesses in 38%, adjusted OR 3.54). Care issues were also common (range 9%-54%) but not associated with poor recovery. Conclusions: Geriatric syndromes, behavioral care issues and additional illnesses are common in delirium. Future studies should assess whether monitoring for and intervening against geriatric syndromes and additional illnesses may improve functional outcomes after delirium.
    International Psychogeriatrics 12/2014; · 1.89 Impact Factor

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