Article

Parietal-eye phototransduction components and their potential evolutionary implications

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Science (Impact Factor: 31.48). 04/2006; 311(5767):1617-21. DOI: 10.1126/science.1123802
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The parietal-eye photoreceptor is unique because it has two antagonistic light signaling pathways in the same cell-a hyperpolarizing pathway maximally sensitive to blue light and a depolarizing pathway maximally sensitive to green light. Here, we report the molecular components of these two pathways. We found two opsins in the same cell: the blue-sensitive pinopsin and a previously unidentified green-sensitive opsin, which we name parietopsin. Signaling components included gustducin-alpha and Galphao, but not rod or cone transducin-alpha. Single-cell recordings demonstrated that Go mediates the depolarizing response. Gustducin-alpha resembles transducin-alpha functionally and likely mediates the hyperpolarizing response. The parietopsin-Go signaling pair provides clues about how rod and cone phototransduction might have evolved.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Chih-Ying Su, Jul 03, 2015
2 Followers
 · 
169 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Whereas more than one type of visual opsin is present in the retina of most vertebrates, it was thought that each type of photoreceptor expressed only one opsin. However, evidence has accumulated that some photoreceptors contain more than one opsin, in many cases as a result of a developmental transition from the expression of one opsin to another. The salamander UV-sensitive (UV) cone is particularly notable because it contains three opsins (Makino and Dodd, 1996; J Gen Physiol 108:27-34). Two opsin types are expressed at levels more than a hundred times lower than that of the primary opsin. Here, immunohistochemical experiments identified the primary component as a UV cone opsin and the two minor components as the short wavelength-sensitive (S) and long wavelength-sensitive (L) cone opsins. Based on single cell recordings of 156 photoreceptors, the presence of three components in UV cones of hatchlings and terrestrial adults ruled out a developmental transition. There was no evidence for multiple opsin types within rods or S cones. But immunohistochemistry and partial bleaching in conjunction with single cell recording revealed that both single and double L cones contained low levels of short wavelength-sensitive pigments in addition to the main L visual pigment. These results raise the possibility that co-expression of multiple opsins in other vertebrates was overlooked because a minor component absorbing at short wavelengths was masked by the main visual pigment or because the expression level of a component absorbing at long wavelengths was exceedingly low. J. Comp. Neurol., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology 07/2014; 522(10). DOI:10.1002/cne.23531 · 3.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet (UV) vision and UV colour patches have been reported in a wide range of taxa and are increasingly appreciated as an integral part of vertebrate visual perception and communication systems. Previous studies with Lacertidae, a lizard family with diverse and complex coloration, have revealed the existence of UV-reflecting patches that may function as social signals. However, confirmation of the signalling role of UV coloration requires demonstrating that the lizards are capable of vision in the UV waveband. Here we use a multidisciplinary approach to characterize the visual sensitivity of a diverse sample of lacertid species. Spectral transmission measurements of the ocular media show that wavelengths down to 300 nm are transmitted in all the species sampled. Four retinal oil droplet types can be identified in the lacertid retina. Two types are pigmented and two are colourless. Fluorescence microscopy reveals that a type of colourless droplet is UV-transmitting and may thus be associated with UV-sensitive cones. DNA sequencing shows that lacertids have a functional SWS1 opsin, very similar at 13 critical sites to that in the presumed ancestral vertebrate (which was UV-sensitive) and other UV-sensitive lizards. Finally, males of Podarcis muralis are capable of discriminating between two views of the same stimulus that differ only in the presence/absence of UV radiance. Taken together, these results provide convergent evidence of UV vision in lacertids, very likely by means of an independent photopigment. Moreover, the presence of four oil droplet types suggests that lacertids have a four-cone colour vision system.
    Journal of Experimental Biology 06/2014; DOI:10.1242/jeb.104281 · 3.00 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The discovery of melanopsin, the non-visual opsin present in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), has created great excitement in the field of circadian biology. Now, researchers have emphasized melanopsin as the main photopigment governing circadian activity in vertebrates. Circadian biologists have tested this idea under standard laboratory, 12h Light: 12h Dark, lighting conditions that lack the dramatic daily colour changes of natural skylight. Here we used a stimulus paradigm in which the colour of the illumination changed throughout the day, thus mimicking natural skylight, but luminance, sensed intrinsically by melanopsin containing ganglion cells, was kept constant. We show in two species of cichlid, Aequidens pulcher and Labeotropheus fuelleborni, that changes in light colour, not intensity, are the primary determinants of natural circadian activity. Moreover, opponent-cone photoreceptor inputs to ipRGCs mediate the sensation of wavelength change, and not the intrinsic photopigment, melanopsin. These results have implications for understanding the evolutionary biology of non-visual photosensory pathways and answer long-standing questions about the nature and distribution of photopigments in organisms, including providing a solution to the mystery of why nocturnal animals routinely have mutations that interrupt the function of their short wavelength sensitive photopigment gene.
    Animal Behaviour 05/2012; 83(5):1143-1151. DOI:10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.01.035 · 3.07 Impact Factor