Phytostabilization of a metal contaminated sandy soil. I: Influence of compost and/or inorganic metal immobilizing soil amendments on phytotoxicity and plant availability of metals.
ABSTRACT In a lysimeter set-up, compost addition to an industrial contaminated soil slightly reduced phytotoxicity to bean seedlings. The "Phytotoxicity Index" (on a scale from 1 to 4) decreased from 3.5 to 2.8. The same treatment also reduced metal accumulation in grasses: mean Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations decreased respectively from 623 to 135, from 6.2 to 1.3 and from 10.7 to <6 mg kg-1 dry weight. When combined with inorganic metal immobilizing amendments, compost had a beneficial effect on plant responses additional to the inorganic amendments alone. Best results were obtained when using compost (C)+cyclonic ashes (CA)+steel shots (SS). The "Phytotoxicity Index" decreased to 1.7, highest diversity of spontaneously colonizing plants occurred, and metal accumulation in grasses reduced to values for uncontaminated soils. Based on the first year evaluation, C+CA+SS showed to be an efficient treatment for amendment assisted phytostabilization of the contaminated Overpelt soil.
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ABSTRACT: Dark septate endophytes (DSE) occur widely in association with plants exposed to heavy metal stress. However, little is known about the response of DSE exposed to heavy metals. In this study, five DSE were isolated from the roots of Astragalus adsurgens Pall. seedlings growing on lead-zinc mine tailings in China. Based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequence analyses, the isolates were identified as Gaeumannomyces cylindrosporus, Paraphoma chrysanthemicola, Phialophora mustea, Exophiala salmonis, and Cladosporium cladosporioides. G. cylindrosporus was selected to explore responses to Pb stress. Scanning electron microscopic observations of G. cylindrosporus grown on solid medium revealed curling of hyphae and formation of hyphal coils in response to Pb. In contrast, in liquid medium, hyphae became thick and swollen with an increase in Pb (II) concentration. We interpret that these changes are related to the variation in cell wall components. We also demonstrated that fungal melanin content increased with the addition of Pb(II). Melanin, as an important component in the cell wall, is known to be an essential antioxidant responsible for decreasing heavy metal toxicity. We also measured the total soluble protein content and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in G. cylindrosporus and found that they initially increased and then decreased with the increase of Pb(II) concentrations. The antioxidant enzyme activities were also examined, and the results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly positively correlated with Pb(II) concentrations (r = 0.957, P<0.001). Collectively, our observations indicate that the intracellular antioxidant systems, especially fungal melanin, play an important role in abating the hazards of heavy metals.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e47968. · 4.09 Impact Factor