Phytostabilization of a Metal Contaminated Sandy Soil, I: Influence of Compost and/or Inorganic Metal Immobilizing Soil Amendments on Phytotoxicity and Plant Availability of Metals

Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences-Environmental Biology, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium.
Environmental Pollution (Impact Factor: 4.14). 11/2006; 144(2):524-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2006.01.038
Source: PubMed


In a lysimeter set-up, compost addition to an industrial contaminated soil slightly reduced phytotoxicity to bean seedlings. The "Phytotoxicity Index" (on a scale from 1 to 4) decreased from 3.5 to 2.8. The same treatment also reduced metal accumulation in grasses: mean Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations decreased respectively from 623 to 135, from 6.2 to 1.3 and from 10.7 to <6 mg kg-1 dry weight. When combined with inorganic metal immobilizing amendments, compost had a beneficial effect on plant responses additional to the inorganic amendments alone. Best results were obtained when using compost (C)+cyclonic ashes (CA)+steel shots (SS). The "Phytotoxicity Index" decreased to 1.7, highest diversity of spontaneously colonizing plants occurred, and metal accumulation in grasses reduced to values for uncontaminated soils. Based on the first year evaluation, C+CA+SS showed to be an efficient treatment for amendment assisted phytostabilization of the contaminated Overpelt soil.

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    • "cement, lime and clay) (Du et al., 2012; Jiang et al., 2014), biochar also assists in revegetation and restoration of the treated contaminated land (Beesley et al., 2011). These are critical processes for the stabilisation and sustainable development of the land and reducing further risk to humans and the surrounding ecosystem (Arienzo et al., 2004; Ruttens et al., 2006). Therefore, biochar is a promising material with the potential to be applied in soil remediation for its multiple environmental benefits. "
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    ABSTRACT: A field remediation treatment was carried out to examine the long-term effect of biochar on the immobilisation of metals and the revegetation of a contaminated site in Castleford, UK. The extracted concentrations of nickel (Ni) (II) and zinc (Zn) (II) in the carbonic acid leaching tests were reduced by 83-98% over three years. The extracted Ni (II) and Zn (II) concentrations three years after the treatment were comparable to a cement-based treatment study carried out in a parallel manner on the same site. The sequential extraction results indicated that biochar addition (0.5-2%) increased the residue fractions of Ni (II) (from 51% to 61-66%) and Zn (II) (from 7% to 27-35%) in the soils through competitive sorption, which may have resulted in the reduction of leachabilities of Ni (II) (from 0.35% to 0.12-0.15%) and Zn (II) (from 0.12% to 0.01%) in the plots with biochar compared with that without biochar three years after the treatment. The germination of grass in the plots on site failed. Further laboratory pot study suggested that larger amounts of biochar (5% or more) and compost (5% or more) were needed for the success of revegetation on this site. This study suggests the effectiveness and potential of biochar application in immobilising heavy metals in contaminated site in the long term.
    Science of The Total Environment 11/2015; 542(Pt A):771-776. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.10.057 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    • "dismutase. Vangronsveld and Clijsters (1992), Mench et al. (1994), Vangronsveld et al. (1995a, b, 1996), and Ruttens et al. (2006) reported that, after incorporating soil amendments like compost, cyclonic ashes, and steel shots, the plant-availability of metals decreased and that this resulted in reductions of activities of stress enzymes in roots and leaves of bean seedlings. With increasing biochar application rates an increasing trend of soluble protein content was observed, but differences between the treatments were not significant. "
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    ABSTRACT: The potential use of biochar from olive mill waste for in situ remediation of metal contaminated soils was evaluated. Biochar was mixed with metal contaminated soil originating from the vicinity of an old zinc smelter. Soil–biochar mixtures were equilibrated for 30 and 90 days. At these time points, Ca(NO3)2 exchangeable metals were determined, and effects of the biochar amendment on soil toxicity were investigated using plants, bacteria, and earthworms. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) growth, metal content, antioxidative enzymes activities, and soluble protein contents were determined. Furthermore, effects on soil microbial communities (activity, diversity, richness) were examined using Biolog ECOplates. After 120 days of soil–biochar equilibration, effects on weight and reproduction of Eisenia foetida were evaluated. With increasing biochar application rate and equilibration period, Ca(NO3)2 exchangeable metals decreased, and growth of bean plants improved; leaf metal contents reduced, the activities of antioxidative stress enzymes decreased, and soluble protein contents increased. Soil microbial activity, richness, and diversity were augmented. Earthworm mortality lowered, and their growth and reproduction showed increasing trends.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 08/2014; 22(2):1444-1456. DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-3467-6 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    • "At a 25 cm depth in all untreated soils, Zn concentrations (Figure 4) were highest during the first and third months. Similar results were reported by Ruttens et al. (2006). In the sludged columns, Zn release to the soil solution was very low compared to untreated columns. "
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    ABSTRACT: The role of sewage sludge as an immobilising agent in the phytostabilization of metal-contaminated soil was evaluated using five grass species viz., Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., F. rubra L., Lolium perenne L., L. westerwoldicum L. The function of metal immobilization was investigated by monitoring pH, Eh and Cd, Pb, and Zn levels in column experiment over a period of 5-months. Grasses grown on sewage sludge-amendments produced high biomass in comparison to controls. A significant reduction in metal uptake by plants was also observed as a result of sewage sludge application, which was attributed to decreased bioavailability through soil stabilisation. We have observed that the sludge amendment decreased metal bioavailability and concentrations in soil at a depth of 25 cm, in contrast to untreated columns, where metal concentrations in the soil solution were very high.
    International Journal of Phytoremediation 06/2014; 16(6):593-608. DOI:10.1080/15226514.2013.798625 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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