Climate change and human health: impacts, vulnerability and public health.
ABSTRACT It is now widely accepted that climate change is occurring as a result of the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere arising from the combustion of fossil fuels. Climate change may affect health through a range of pathways, for example as a result of increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, reduction in cold related deaths, increased floods and droughts, changes in the distribution of vector-borne diseases and effects on the risk of disasters and malnutrition. The overall balance of effects on health is likely to be negative and populations in low-income countries are likely to be particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects. The experience of the 2003 heat wave in Europe shows that high-income countries may also be adversely affected. Adaptation to climate change requires public health strategies and improved surveillance. Mitigation of climate change by reducing the use of fossil fuels and increasing a number of uses of the renewable energy technologies should improve health in the near-term by reducing exposure to air pollution.
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ABSTRACT: Using a geographic transect in Central Mexico, with an elevation/climate gradient, but uniformity in socio-economic conditions among study sites, this study evaluates the applicability of three widely-used remote sensing (RS) products to link weather conditions with the local abundance of the dengue virus mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Field-derived entomological measures included estimates for the percentage of premises with the presence of Ae. aegypti pupae and the abundance of Ae. aegypti pupae per premises. Data on mosquito abundance from field surveys were matched with RS data and analyzed for correlation. Daily daytime and nighttime land surface temperature (LST) values were obtained from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua cloud-free images within the four weeks preceding the field survey. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)-estimated rainfall accumulation was calculated for the four weeks preceding the field survey. Elevation was estimated through a digital elevation model (DEM). Strong correlations were found between mosquito abundance and RS-derived night LST, elevation and rainfall along the elevation/climate gradient. These findings show that RS data can be used to predict Ae. aegypti abundance, but further studies are needed to define the climatic and socio-economic conditions under which the correlations observed herein can be assumed to apply.ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 05/2014; 3(2):732-749.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) has called that climate change is a threat to public health, it is therefore necessary to know the perception of risk to climate change specifically on future health professionals. Materials and Methods: Descriptive quantitative research was undertaken with stratified random sampling. Chi2 analysis and logistic regression were performed to identify factors associated with sensitive risk perception of climate change and increased climate change to infectious diseases. Results: By Chi2 was found that about 69% of students perceive climate change as harmful and between 50 and 59% of them perceive that infectious diseases will increase as a result of climate change. By logistic regression statistical significance was observed that students who belong to the sixth semester of study or higher semesters are 60% more likely to recognize that they can get sick from climate change, 63% more likely to perceive climate change as harmful, were associated 2.2 times plus the increase in global temperature to increase in patients with yellow fever and dengue, also have 58% more likely to relate the increase in cases of cholera and malaria, with respect to students belonging to lower semesters. Discussion: Students of different health programs that belong to the sixth semester of study or higher perceived climate change as a threat to public health and associated with increased infectious diseases, thus, can be considered health students as they progress in academic semesters perceive a greater risk of climate change as a threat to public health and an increase in sick for climate-sensitive infectious diseases. Conclusions: It can be concluded that students in health sciences at the University of Magdalena as found in higher semesters acquire a greater perception of risk from the impact of climate change on public health and the increase of infectious diseases. http://cuidarte.udes.edu.co/attachments/article/149/PERCEPCION%20DEL%20RIESGO%20AL%20CAMBIO%20CLIMATICO_4.pdfRevista Cuidarte. 06/2014; 5(1):613-22.
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ABSTRACT: In a changing outdoor climate, new buildings as well as the existing building stock need to adapt in order to keep providing their inhabitants and users a comfortable and healthy indoor environment, with a minimum or – preferably – no increase in energy consumption. In this paper, the effectiveness of six passive climate change adaptation measures applied at the level of building components is assessed using building energy simulations for three generic residential buildings as commonly built in -among others -the Netherlands: (1) detached house; (2) terraced house; (3) apartment. The study involves both residential buildings that are built according to the regulations and common practice in 2012, and residential buildings that were constructed in the 1970s, with a lower thermal resistance of the opaque and transparent parts of the building envelope. The climate change adaptation measures investigated are: (i) increased thermal resistance; (ii) changed thermal capacity; (iii) increased short-wave reflectivity (albedo); (iv) vegetation roofs; (v) solar shading; and (vi) additional natural ventilation. This paper quantifies the effectiveness of these climate change adaptation measures for new residential buildings as well as for renovation of the current building stock. The performance indicator is the number of overheating hours during a year. It is shown that exterior solar shading and additional natural ventilation are most effective for this performance indicator. Furthermore, increasing thermal insulation to reduce energy use for heating demands additional measures to prevent overheating.Building and Environment 01/2015; · 2.43 Impact Factor