Immunosuppression promotes reovirus therapy of colorectal liver metastases.
ABSTRACT Mortality due to colorectal cancer (CRC) is high and is associated with the development of liver metastases. Approximately 40% of human CRCs harbor an activating mutation in the KRAS oncogene. Tumor cells with activated KRAS are particularly sensitive to Reovirus T3D, a non-pathogenic oncolytic virus. The efficacy of virus-based therapies may be positively or negatively modulated by the host immune system. This study was designed to assess the effect of immunosuppression on Reovirus T3D oncolysis of established colorectal micrometastases in the liver. Mouse C26 CRC cells harbor a mutant Kras gene and are susceptible to Kras-dependent oncolysis by Reovirus T3D in vitro. Isolated C26 liver tumors were established in syngenic immunocompetent BALB/c mice by intrahepatic injection. Reovirus T3D therapy was given as a single intratumoral injection in control mice and in cyclosporin A-treated immunosuppressed mice. Tumor growth was analyzed over time by non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. The outgrowth of established CRC liver metastases in immunocompetent mice was efficiently but temporarily inhibited with a single injection of Reovirus T3D. Immunosuppression with cyclosporin A markedly increased and prolonged the therapeutic effect and allowed complete Reovirus T3D-induced tumor eradication in a subpopulation of the mice. We conclude that Reovirus T3D is an effective therapeutic agent against established C26 colorectal liver metastases and that immunosuppression enhances treatment efficacy. Cancer Gene Therapy (2006) 13, 815-818. doi:10.1038/sj.cgt.7700949; published online 10 March 2006.
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ABSTRACT: Reovirus type 3 Dearing has demonstrated oncolytic efficacy in vitro and in vivo against a variety of cancer cell lines, tumor xenografts and syngeneic cancer models. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of reovirus against aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colon cancer induced by the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) in an immunocompetent rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats received 15 mg/kg AOM intraperitoneally once per week for 4 weeks and reovirus was administered rectally once a week for 5 weeks starting 20 weeks after the last dose of AOM. Two weeks after completion of reovirus therapy, animals were examined for tumor burden in the colon and other tissues. Reovirus-treated animals showed a decrease in total ACF numbers (P=0.014), in large ACFs (P=0.0069) and in tumor number (P=0.03) compared to vehicle-treated animals. Fewer obstructing tumors in the colon (P=0.07) and duodenum (P=0.03) and reduced hepatic metastases were also noted. In addition, a tumor cell line derived from hepatic metastases was found to be susceptible to reovirus in vitro. Our results show that repeated rectal reovirus administration had some efficacy in the treatment and prevention of AOM-induced ACFs, colon cancers and metastases.Cancer Gene Therapy 11/2007; 14(10):867-72. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Activating mutation of KRas is a genetic alteration that occurs in the majority of pancreatic tumors and is therefore an ideal therapeutic target. The ability of reoviruses to preferentially replicate and induce cell death in transformed cells that express activated Ras prompted the development of a reovirus-based formulation for cancer therapy called Reolysin. We hypothesized that Reolysin exposure would trigger heavy production of viral products leading to endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis. Here, we report that Reolysin treatment stimulated selective reovirus replication and decreased cell viability in KRas-transformed immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial cells and pancreatic cancer cell lines. These effects were associated with increased expression of ER stress-related genes, ER swelling, cleavage of caspase-4, and splicing of XBP-1. Treatment with ER stress stimuli including tunicamycin, brefeldin A, and bortezomib (BZ) augmented the anticancer activity of Reolysin. Cotreatment with BZ and Reolysin induced the simultaneous accumulation of ubiquitinated and viral proteins, resulting in enhanced levels of ER stress and apoptosis in both in vitro and in vivo models of pancreatic cancer. Our collective results demonstrate that the abnormal protein accumulation induced by the combination of Reolysin and BZ promotes heightened ER stress and apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells and provides the rationale for a phase I clinical trial further investigating the safety and efficacy of this novel strategy.Cell Death & Disease 01/2013; 4:e728. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Replication-competent viruses based on the Edmonston vaccine strain of measles virus (MV-Edm) have potent and selective activities against various types of tumours in vitro but the responses in vivo are more variable. Some tumours are eliminated consistently while others persist despite evidence of ongoing viral propagation. In order to understand these disparate results, we have developed a model for the spatial growth of a tumour population followed by infection with a replicating virus that can spread by cell-to-cell fusion ultimately leading to cell death. We utilize the model to explore both the impact of tumour architecture and the dynamics of tumour cell-virus interactions on the outcome of therapy.Integrative Biology 01/2010; 2(1):41-5. · 4.32 Impact Factor