Immunosuppression promotes reovirus therapy of colorectal liver metastases.
ABSTRACT Mortality due to colorectal cancer (CRC) is high and is associated with the development of liver metastases. Approximately 40% of human CRCs harbor an activating mutation in the KRAS oncogene. Tumor cells with activated KRAS are particularly sensitive to Reovirus T3D, a non-pathogenic oncolytic virus. The efficacy of virus-based therapies may be positively or negatively modulated by the host immune system. This study was designed to assess the effect of immunosuppression on Reovirus T3D oncolysis of established colorectal micrometastases in the liver. Mouse C26 CRC cells harbor a mutant Kras gene and are susceptible to Kras-dependent oncolysis by Reovirus T3D in vitro. Isolated C26 liver tumors were established in syngenic immunocompetent BALB/c mice by intrahepatic injection. Reovirus T3D therapy was given as a single intratumoral injection in control mice and in cyclosporin A-treated immunosuppressed mice. Tumor growth was analyzed over time by non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. The outgrowth of established CRC liver metastases in immunocompetent mice was efficiently but temporarily inhibited with a single injection of Reovirus T3D. Immunosuppression with cyclosporin A markedly increased and prolonged the therapeutic effect and allowed complete Reovirus T3D-induced tumor eradication in a subpopulation of the mice. We conclude that Reovirus T3D is an effective therapeutic agent against established C26 colorectal liver metastases and that immunosuppression enhances treatment efficacy. Cancer Gene Therapy (2006) 13, 815-818. doi:10.1038/sj.cgt.7700949; published online 10 March 2006.
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ABSTRACT: Activating mutation of KRas is a genetic alteration that occurs in the majority of pancreatic tumors and is therefore an ideal therapeutic target. The ability of reoviruses to preferentially replicate and induce cell death in transformed cells that express activated Ras prompted the development of a reovirus-based formulation for cancer therapy called Reolysin. We hypothesized that Reolysin exposure would trigger heavy production of viral products leading to endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis. Here, we report that Reolysin treatment stimulated selective reovirus replication and decreased cell viability in KRas-transformed immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial cells and pancreatic cancer cell lines. These effects were associated with increased expression of ER stress-related genes, ER swelling, cleavage of caspase-4, and splicing of XBP-1. Treatment with ER stress stimuli including tunicamycin, brefeldin A, and bortezomib (BZ) augmented the anticancer activity of Reolysin. Cotreatment with BZ and Reolysin induced the simultaneous accumulation of ubiquitinated and viral proteins, resulting in enhanced levels of ER stress and apoptosis in both in vitro and in vivo models of pancreatic cancer. Our collective results demonstrate that the abnormal protein accumulation induced by the combination of Reolysin and BZ promotes heightened ER stress and apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells and provides the rationale for a phase I clinical trial further investigating the safety and efficacy of this novel strategy.Cell Death & Disease 01/2013; 4:e728. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reovirus preferentially replicates in transformed cells and is being explored as a cancer therapy. Immunological and physical barriers to virotherapy inspired a quest for reovirus variants with enhanced oncolytic potency. Using a classical genetics approach, we isolated two reovirus variants (T3v1 and T3v2) with superior replication relative to wild-type reovirus serotype 3 Dearing (T3wt) on various human and mouse tumorigenic cell lines. Unique mutations in reovirus λ2 vertex protein and σ1 cell attachment protein were associated with the large plaque-forming phenotype of T3v1 and T3v2, respectively. Both T3v1 and T3v2 exhibited higher infectivity (i.e., a higher PFU-to-particle ratio) than T3wt. A detailed analysis of virus replication revealed that virus cell binding and uncoating were equivalent for variant and wild-type reoviruses. However, T3v1 and T3v2 were significantly more efficient than T3wt in initiating productive infection. Thus, when cells were infected with equivalent input virus particles, T3v1 and T3v2 produced significantly higher levels of early viral RNAs relative to T3wt. Subsequent steps of virus replication (viral RNA and protein synthesis, virus assembly, and cell death) were equivalent for all three viruses. In a syngeneic mouse model of melanoma, both T3v1 and T3v2 prolonged mouse survival compared to wild-type reovirus. Our studies reveal that oncolytic potency of reovirus can be improved through distinct mutations that increase the infectivity of reovirus particles.Journal of Virology 04/2012; 86(13):7403-13. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cancer is a traitorous archenemy that threatens our survival. Its ability to evade detection and adapt to various cancer therapies means that it is a moving target that becomes increasingly difficult to attack. Through technological advancements, we have developed sophisticated weapons to fight off tumor growth and invasion. However, if we are to stand a chance in this war against cancer, advanced tactics will be required to maximize the use of our available resources. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are multi-functional cancer-fighters that can be engineered to suit many different strategies; in particular, their retooling can facilitate increased capacity for direct tumor killing (oncolytic virotherapy) and elicit adaptive antitumor immune responses (oncolytic immunotherapy). However, administration of these modified OVs alone, rarely induces successful regression of established tumors. This may be attributed to host antiviral immunity that acts to eliminate viral particles, as well as the capacity for tumors to adapt to therapeutic selective pressure. It has been shown that various chemotherapeutic drugs with distinct functional properties can potentiate the antitumor efficacy of OVs. In this review, we summarize the chemotherapeutic combinatorial strategies used to optimize virally induced destruction of tumors. With a particular focus on pharmaceutical immunomodulators, we discuss how specific therapeutic contexts may alter the effects of these synergistic combinations and their implications for future clinical use.Frontiers in oncology. 01/2014; 4:145.