Cultures of rat olfactory ensheathing cells are contaminated with Schwann cells.
ABSTRACT Implantation of cultured olfactory ensheathing cells into the damaged spinal cord of adult rats has been reported to remyelinate central axons. This observation is curious because olfactory ensheathing cells do not myelinate axons in their native environment. We have recently determined that calponin is the first definitive phenotypic marker for olfactory ensheathing cells. Primary cultures of adult rat olfactory mucosa and olfactory bulb were immunostained for p75 neurotrophin receptor and calponin. Our results reveal that two populations of p75 neurotrophin receptor-positive cells exist in primary cultures of the olfactory mucosa and bulb: calponin-positive olfactory ensheathing cells and calponin-negative Schwann cells. As olfactory tissues likely yield a mixed glial population, the idea that olfactory ensheathing cells are capable of de novo myelin synthesis after intraspinal implantation should be re-evaluated.
- SourceAvailable from: Viktor Skihar[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that implanting olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) may be a promising therapeutic strategy to promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Several fundamental questions remain, however, regarding their in vivo interactions in the damaged spinal cord. We have induced a clip compression injury at the T10 level of the spinal cord in adult rats. After a delay of 1 week, OECs isolated from embryonic day 18 rats were implanted into the cystic cavity that had formed at the site of injury. Before implantation, OECs were infected with a LacZ-expressing retrovirus. At 3 weeks after implantation, LacZ-expressing OECs survived the implantation procedure and remained localized to the cystic cavity. At the electron microscopic level, the cystic cavity had clusters of LacZ-expressing OECs and numerous Schwann cells lacking LacZ expression. Although labeled OECs made no direct contact with axons, unlabeled Schwann cells were associated with either a single myelinated axon or multiple unmyelinated axons. Positively labeled OEC processes often enveloped multiple Schwann cell-axon units. These observations suggest that the role of OECs as the primary mediators of the beneficial effects on axon growth, myelination, and functional recovery after spinal cord injury may require re-evaluation.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2004; 101(7):2162-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) were prepared from adult human olfactory nerves, which were removed during surgery for frontal base tumors, and were transplanted into the demyelinated spinal cord of immunosuppressed adult rats. Extensive remyelination was observed in the lesion site: In situ hybridization using a human DNA probe (COT-1) indicated a similar number of COT-1-positive cells and OEC nuclei within the repaired lesion. The myelination was of a peripheral type with large nuclei and cytoplasmic regions surrounding the axons, characteristic of Schwann cell and OEC remyelination. These results provide evidence that adult human OECs are able to produce Schwann cell-like myelin sheaths around demyelinated axons in the adult mammalian CNS in vivo.Glia 06/2000; 30(3):209-18. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) into the damaged rat spinal cord leads to directed elongative axonal regeneration and improved functional outcome. OECs are known to produce a number of neurotrophic molecules. To explore the possibility that OECs are neuroprotective for injured corticospinal tract (CST) neurons, we transplanted OECs into the dorsal transected spinal cord (T9) and examined primary motor cortex (M1) to assess apoptosis and neuronal loss at 1 and 4 weeks post-transplantation. The number of apoptotic cortical neurons was reduced at 1 week, and the extent of neuronal loss was reduced at 4 weeks. Biochemical analysis indicated an increase in BDNF levels in the spinal cord injury zone after OEC transplantation at 1 week. The transplanted OECs associated longitudinally with axons at 4 weeks. Thus, OEC transplantation into the injured spinal cord has distant neuroprotective effects on descending cortical projection neurons.Glia 04/2006; 53(4):352-9. · 5.07 Impact Factor