The course of depression in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression: A prospective study
ABSTRACT Negative cognitive styles have been shown to prospectively predict depression onset and recurrence. Research has also begun to suggest that cognitive styles may be associated with the course of depression as well. This study examined whether cognitive risk for depression onset also predicts the course of depression in a prospective design.
One hundred fifty-nine initially nondepressed participants from the Temple-Wisconsin Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression Project who experienced a depressive episode while in the study were followed prospectively for 2.5 years. Four indicators of the course of depression were assessed from diagnostic interviews and questionnaires administered every 6 weeks: the number, severity and duration of episodes and the chronicity of the depression experienced.
Cognitive high-risk participants experienced more episodes of depression, more severe episodes, and more chronic courses than low-risk participants. There were no risk group differences observed for the duration of episodes.
This study's sample was chosen to include individuals with high and low cognitive vulnerability to depression, potentially limiting the generalizability of the findings to other individuals. Also, the study included some participants with a past history of depression.
Negative cognitive styles predict a worse course of depression as well as rendering an individual prone to depression onset. This highlights that the cognitive factors impacting depression's course overlap, at least partly, with those that initiate depression. Thus, knowledge of a depressed individual's cognitive styles could aid in prognosis and treatment planning.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Wayne G Whitehouse, May 28, 2015
SourceAvailable from: Randy AuerbachJournal of Social and Clinical Psychology 01/2011; 30(1):75-104. DOI:10.1521/jscp.2011.30.1.75 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a pervasive and debilitating illness, with a recurrent course and chronic prognosis. Although effective treatments for MDD exist, there is a pressing need to characterize relapse vulnerability in order to design effective prophylactic care. To date, heterogeneity within depression neuroimaging research has made it difficult to establish a reliable biomarker of disorder susceptibility. In this paper, we review neuroimaging evidence for the assessment of MDD vulnerability, theorizing that current findings can be broadly distinguished between those indicating the presence of depressive episodes and those indicating MDD vulnerability during symptom remission. We argue that unlike the amygdala hyperactivity and prefrontal hypoactivity observed during MDD episodes, prefrontal hyperactivity may be a characteristic of dysphoric cognition during symptom remission that indicates MDD vulnerability and relapse risk. Drawing on current research of normative emotion regulation, we describe a potential test of MDD vulnerability, employing emotional challenge paradigms that induce cognitive reactivity — the increased endorsement of negative self-descriptions during a transient dysphoric mood. Relative to a normative model of prefrontal function, the neuroimaging assessment of cognitive reactivity may provide a reliable indicator of MDD vulnerability, advancing the field of biomarker research as well as the delivery of preventative treatment on an individual basis.12/2011; 2(4). DOI:10.2478/s13380-011-0033-2
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ABSTRACT: Objectives and Methods. Several researchers have provided support for the critical role of cognitive vulnerabilities in the development of depression. The Attitudes toward Self-Revised (ATS-R) was designed to assess three potential self-regulatory vulnerabilities to depression: High Standards (HS), Self-Criticism (SC), and Negative Generalization (NG). The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the ATS-R in the Italian young adult population. The ATS-R, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and the Teate Depression Inventory (TDI) were administered to 857 (320 men and 537 women) young adults. Results. The best-fitting solution for the ATS-R was a 2-factor model, which obtained satisfactory homogeneity of content (HS/SC: Cronbach α = 0.81; mean interitem correlation = 0.46. NG: Cronbach α = 0.75; mean interitem correlation = 0.43) and significant correlation with the BDI-II (NG: Pearson r = 0.29, P < 0.01), the TDI (HS/SC: Pearson r = -0.26, P < 0.01), and the BHS (HS/SC: Pearson r = -0.29, P < 0.01; NG: Pearson r = 0.22, P < 0.01). Conclusions. The Italian version of the ATS-R seems to be a valid instrument for the study of the role of cognitive tendencies as potential vulnerability for depression.Depression research and treatment 06/2013; 2013:209216. DOI:10.1155/2013/209216