Article

Lipid Rafts & Co.: an integrated model of membrane organization in T cell activation.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
Progress in Lipid Research (Impact Factor: 10.25). 06/2006; 45(3):187-202. DOI: 10.1016/j.plipres.2006.01.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The model of membrane compartmentalization by self-organizing functional lipid microdomains, named lipid rafts, has been a fruitful concept resulting in great progress in understanding T cell signal transduction. However, due to recent results it has become clear that lipid rafts describe only one out of several membrane organizing principles crucial for T cell activation besides fences and pickets and protein-protein interactions that take part in the formation of the immunological synapse as a highly organized structure at the T cell contact site to the antigen-presenting cell. This review describes the concepts of lipid rafts and other membrane organizing principles to evolve a novel integrated model on the functional role of microdomains in immunological synapse formation and T cell activation. Further research has to elucidate the relative contribution and interrelation of different modes of membrane organization in productive T cell activation.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
33 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Numerous effects of n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA on functional responses of cells involved in inflammation and immunity have been described. Fatty acid-induced modifications in membrane order and in the availability of substrates for eicosanoid synthesis are long-standing mechanisms that are considered important in explaining the effects observed. More recently, effects on signal transduction pathways and on gene expression profiles have been identified. Over the last 10 years or so, significant advances in understanding the mechanisms of action of n-3 fatty acids have been made. These include the identification of new actions of lipid mediators that were already described and of novel interactions among those mediators and the description of an entirely new family of lipid mediators, resolvins and protectins that have anti-inflammatory actions and are critical to the resolution of inflammation. It is also recognised that EPA and DHA can inhibit activation of the prototypical inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. Recent studies suggest three alternative mechanisms by which n-3 fatty acids might have this effect. Within T-cells, as well as other cells of relevance to immune and inflammatory responses, EPA and DHA act to disrupt very early events involving formation of the structures termed lipid rafts which bring together various proteins to form an effective signalling platform. In summary, recent research has identified a number of new mechanisms of action that help to explain previously identified effects of n-3 fatty acids on inflammation and immunity.
    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 05/2013; · 3.67 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: According to the lipid raft hypothesis, biological lipid membranes are laterally heterogeneous and filled with nanoscale ordered "raft" domains, which are believed to play an important role for the organization of proteins in membranes. However, the mechanisms stabilizing such small rafts are not clear, and even their existence is sometimes questioned. Here, we report the observation of raft-like structures in a coarse-grained molecular model for multicomponent lipid bilayers. On small scales, our membranes demix into a liquid ordered (lo) phase and a liquid disordered (ld) phase. On large scales, phase separation is suppressed and gives way to a microemulsion-type state that contains nanometer-sized lo domains in an ld environment. Furthermore, we introduce a mechanism that generates rafts of finite size by a coupling between monolayer curvature and local composition. We show that mismatch between the spontaneous curvatures of monolayers in the lo and ld phases induces elastic interactions, which reduce the line tension between the lo and ld phases and can stabilize raft domains with a characteristic size of the order of a few nanometers. Our findings suggest that rafts in multicomponent bilayers might be closely related to the modulated ripple phase in one-component bilayers.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/cfs) is classified by the World Health Organization as a disorder of the central nervous system. ME/cfs is an neuro-immune disorder accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, increased levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), O&NS-mediated damage to fatty acids, DNA and proteins, autoimmune reactions directed against neoantigens and brain disorders. Mitochondrial dysfunctions have been found in ME/cfs, e.g. lowered ATP production, impaired oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial damage. This paper reviews the pathways that may explain mitochondrial dysfunctions in ME/cfs. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and elastase, and increased O&NS may inhibit mitochondrial respiration, decrease the activities of the electron transport chain and mitochondrial membrane potential, increase mitochondrial membrane permeability, interfere with ATP production and cause mitochondrial shutdown. The activated O&NS pathways may additionally lead to damage of mitochondrial DNA and membranes thus decreasing membrane fluidity. Lowered levels of antioxidants, zinc and coenzyme Q10, and ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in ME/cfs may further aggravate the activated immuno-inflammatory and O&NS pathways. Therefore, it may be concluded that immuno-inflammatory and O&NS pathways may play a role in the mitochondrial dysfunctions and consequently the bioenergetic abnormalities seen in patients with ME/cfs. Defects in ATP production and the electron transport complex, in turn, are associated with an elevated production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in mitochondria creating adaptive and synergistic damage. It is argued that mitochondrial dysfunctions, e.g. lowered ATP production, may play a role in the onset of ME/cfs symptoms, e.g. fatigue and post exertional malaise, and may explain in part the central metabolic abnormalities observed in ME/cfs, e.g. glucose hypometabolism and cerebral hypoperfusion.
    Metabolic Brain Disease 03/2014; 29(1):19-36. · 2.33 Impact Factor