In vivo antiproliferative effect of NS-187, a dual Bcr-Abl/Lyn tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on leukemic cells harbouring Abl kinase domain mutations.
ABSTRACT Advanced-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib often relapse due to point mutations in the Abl kinase domain. We herein examine the in vitro and in vivo effects of a Bcr-Abl/Lyn dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor, NS-187, on seven mutated Bcr-Abl proteins. NS-187 inhibited both Tyr393-phosphorylated and Tyr393-unphosphorylated Abl, resulting in significant in vitro growth inhibition of cells expressing six of seven mutated Bcr-Abl kinases, though not T315I. Furthermore, NS-187 prolonged the survival of mice injected with leukemic cells expressing all mutated Bcr-Abl tested except T315I, and its efficacy correlated well with its in vitro effects.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a hematological stem cell disorder caused by increased and unregulated growth of myeloid cells in the bone marrow, and the accumulation of excessive white blood cells. Abelson tyrosine kinase (ABL) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in cell growth and proliferation and is usually under tight control. However, 95% of CML patients have the ABL gene from chromosome 9 fused with the breakpoint cluster (BCR) gene from chromosome 22, resulting in a short chromosome known as the Philadelphia chromosome. This Philadelphia chromosome is responsible for the production of BCR-ABL, a constitutively active tyrosine kinase that causes uncontrolled cellular proliferation. An ABL inhibitor, imatinib, was approved by the FDA for the treatment of CML, and is currently used as first line therapy. However, a high percentage of clinical relapse has been observed due to long term treatment with imatinib. A majority of these relapsed patients have several point mutations at and around the ATP binding pocket of the ABL kinase domain in BCR-ABL. In order to address the resistance of mutated BCR-ABL to imatinib, 2nd generation inhibitors such as dasatinib, and nilotinib were developed. These compounds were approved for the treatment of CML patients who are resistant to imatinib. All of the BCR-ABL mutants are inhibited by the 2nd generation inhibitors with the exception of the T315I mutant. Several 3rd generation inhibitors such as AP24534, VX-680 (MK-0457), PHA- 739358, PPY-A, XL-228, SGX-70393, FTY720 and TG101113 are being developed to target the T315I mutation. The early results from these compounds are encouraging and it is anticipated that physicians will have additional drugs at their disposal for the treatment of patients with the mutated BCR-ABL-T315I. The success of these inhibitors has greater implication not only in CML, but also in other diseases driven by kinases where the mutated gatekeeper residue plays a major role.Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 06/2008; 8(10):905-921. · 3.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite promising clinical results from imatinib mesylate and second-generation ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for most BCR-ABL(+) leukemia, BCR-ABL harboring the mutation of threonine 315 to isoleucine (BCR-ABL/T315I) is not targeted by any of these agents. We describe the in vitro and in vivo effects of AT9283 (1-cyclopropyl-3[5-morpholin-4yl methyl-1H-benzomidazol-2-yl]-urea), a potent inhibitor of several protein kinases, including Aurora A, Aurora B, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), JAK3, and ABL on diverse imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL(+) cells. AT9283 showed potent antiproliferative activity on cells transformed by wild-type BCR-ABL and BCR-ABL/T315I. AT9283 inhibited proliferation in a panel of BaF3 and human BCR-ABL(+) cell lines both sensitive and resistant to imatinib because of a variety of mechanisms. In BCR-ABL(+) cells, we confirmed inhibition of substrates of both BCR-ABL (signal transducer and activator of transcription-5) and Aurora B (histone H3) at physiologically achievable concentrations. The in vivo effects of AT9283 were examined in several mouse models engrafted either subcutaneously or intravenously with BaF3/BCR-ABL, human BCR-ABL(+) cell lines, or primary patient samples expressing BCR-ABL/T315I or glutamic acid 255 to lysine, another imatinib-resistant mutation. These data together support further clinical investigation of AT9283 in patients with imatinib- and second-generation ABL TKI-resistant BCR-ABL(+) cells, including T315I.Blood 09/2010; 116(12):2089-95. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec™) has improved the treatment of Bcr-Abl-positive leukemia. However, resistance is often reported in patients with advanced-stage disease. Chemical modifications of imatinib made with the guidance of molecular modeling have yielded several promising compounds that could override imatinib resistance. Among them, we selected a compound denoted NS-187. The most striking structural characteristic of NS-187 is its trifluoromethyl group at position 3 of the benzamide ring, which strengthens the hydrophobic interactions and fixes the conformation of the compound. NS-187 was 25–55 times more potent than imatinib against wild-type Bcr-Abl in vitro. At physiological concentrations, NS-187 also inhibited the phosphorylation and growth of all Bcr-Abl mutants tested except T315I. In addition to Bcr-Abl, NS-187 also inhibited Lyn, which might be involved in imatinib resistance, without affecting the phosphorylation of Src, Blk, or Yes. This indicates that NS-187 acts as a dual Bcr-Abl/Lyn inhibitor. Our proposed docking models of the NS-187/Abl complex support the notion that NS-187 is more specific for Lyn than for Src. In Balb/c-nu/nu mice, which were injected subcutaneously with Bcr-Abl-positive KU812 cells, NS-187 showed at least tenfold more potency than imatinib. We also tested the ability of NS-187 to suppress tumor growth in another murine tumor model, namely, Balb/c-nu/nu mice intravenously transplanted with BaF3 cells harboring wild-type or several mutations of Bcr-Abl (M244V, G250E, Q252H, Y253F, E255K, T315I, M351T, and H396P). NS-187 prolonged the survival of mice injected with leukemic cells expressing wild-type or all mutated Bcr-Abl except T315I, and its efficacy correlated well with its in vitro effects. NS-187 also inhibited leukemic cells harboring wild-type Bcr-Abl growth in the central nervous system, which sometimes becomes a sanctuary for leukemic cells under imatinib treatment. These results suggest that NS-187 may be a potentially valuable novel agent to combat imatinib-resistant Bcr-Abl-positive leukemia. A phase I study of NS-187 will start in 2006.Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 10/2006; 58:55-61. · 2.80 Impact Factor