Long-term Outcome of Autologous Transplantation of Peripheral Blood Progenitor Cells as Postremission Management of Patients ≥60 Years with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
ABSTRACT The optimal postremission treatment for elderly patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is presently unknown, but recent studies report the feasibility of autologous stem cell transplantation in this population. To better understand the long-term outcome of autologous transplantation in AML patients > or =60 years of age, we evaluated high-dose chemoradiotherapy preparative conditioning followed by transplantation of peripheral blood progenitor cells procured after a single cycle of cytarabine-based consolidation chemotherapy as postremission therapy in 27 patients aged 60 to 71 years (median age, 65 years) with newly diagnosed AML in first complete remission (CR). The median follow-up from CR for all patients was 13.6 months (range, 6.0-123.1 months). The median follow-up from remission for surviving patients was 81 months (range, 41.4-123.1 months). Seven patients are alive in continuous CR, 19 died from relapse, and 1 died as a result of treatment-related infection. Leukemia-free survival and overall survival are 10.3 and 13.4 months, respectively. Actuarial leukemia-free and overall survival at 3 years are 25% +/- 9% and 28% +/- 9%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that autologous transplantation of peripheral blood progenitor cells is well tolerated and feasible for patients > or =60 years of age with AML in first CR. Future investigation should focus on a randomized study evaluating a larger group of elderly patients in first CR comparing autologous stem cell transplantation with conventional cytarabine-based consolidation chemotherapy to identify the optimal postremission therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Several studies have reported data on factors influencing mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) in non-myeloid malignancies. On the contrary, data from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are very limited, in particular, as the impact of an antecedent diagnosis of refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) on mobilization of PBSCs as well as hematopoietic recovery after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is concerned. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 150 consecutive AML patients in first complete remission in order to make a comparison between patients with de novo AML and secondary AML (s-AML) in terms of CD34 positive (CD34+) cells mobilization and number of leukapheresis needed to collect at least one single stem cell graft. Data concerning hematopoietic recovery after ASCT were also compared. The successful mobilization rate (>2 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg) was comparable between de novo AML patients (87%) and those with s-AML (76%), P:0.21. No statistically significant difference was found in terms of either median number of CD34+ cells collected (P:0.44) or CD34+ cells peak in peripheral blood (P:0.28). Both groups of patients needed a median of two apheresis (P:0.45) and no difference was found on the median number of CD34+ cells collected per single apheresis (P:0.59). Finally, neutrophil and platelet recovery after ASCT were comparable between the two groups. An antecedent diagnosis of RAEB has no impact on mobilization and collection of PBSCs in AML as well as on hematopoietic recovery after ASCT.European Journal Of Haematology 02/2007; 78(1):41-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0609.2006.00777.x · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukemia carries a dismal prognosis in patients over 60 years of age and, despite many clinical trials of both novel and conventional agents, there has been no significant improvement in overall survival during the last 30 years. Combinations of anthracyclines and cytarabine remain the cornerstone of therapy and produce complete remission in 45-55% of older patients, with a median survival of only 8-12 months. These statistics become even worse in patients over 70 years and those with unfavorable cytogenetics and/or poor performance status. Deciding which older acute myeloid leukemia patients would benefit from intensive chemotherapy is difficult and efforts are underway to improve existing risk-assessment tools. Many new agents are under development, including signal transduction inhibitors, farnesyl transferase inhibitors, antibodies and novel chemotherapeutics. To date, small-molecule inhibitors and targeted therapies have had limited single-agent efficacy and have required combination with chemotherapy. The role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in older patients is under investigation. All patients over 60 years of age with acute myeloid leukemia should be encouraged to participate in a clinical trial if possible.Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 04/2007; 7(3):285-95. DOI:10.1586/14737184.108.40.2065 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The optimal post-remission treatment for elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is presently unknown. Recent studies have reported the feasibility of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) in this population. We evaluate the outcome of this post-remission approach after complete remission (CR) and consolidation in elderly patients included in the EORTC-GIMEMA AML-13 trial. PBSCT after induction and consolidation chemotherapy was evaluated in patients aged 61 to 70 years with a WHO performance status 0-1. The induction therapy was mitoxantrone, etoposide and cytarabine (MICE) with or without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) during and/or after chemotherapy. The consolidation therapy consisted of non-infusion or infusional idarubicin, etposide and cytarabine (mini-ICE). Sixty-one patients were scheduled for stem cell harvest by leukapheresis after s.c. recombinant human G-CSF administration initiated after hematopoietic recovery from consolidation. Stem cells were effectively harvested from 54 patients. A median of two aphereses (range, 1-5) were performed, resulting in a median collection of 11.7 x 10(8) nucleated cells/kg (range, 2.4-99.8) containing 40.2 x 10(4) CFU-GM/kg (range, 0-786.8), and 5 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg (range, 0.1-99.8). For the whole group of 61 patients, the median disease-free survival (DFS) was 1.0 years and the 3-year DFS rate was 21%, while the median overall survival (OS) was 1.4 years and the 3-year OS rate was 32%. A total of 26 patients could not be autografed due to inadequate/no harvest (21 patients), early relapse (3 patients), or treatment refusal (2 patients). Autologous transplantation was performed in 35 patients following conditioning with the BAVC regimen. The median time for granulocyte recovery >0.5 109 yen/L was 24 days and for platelets >20 x10(9)/L was 23 days following transplantation. After a median follow-up of 5.0 years from transplantation, the median DFS and OS were 1.1 and 1.6 years respectively, and the 3-year rates were 28% and 39% respectively. Eight autografted patients were still in continuous complete remission, 22 patients had relapsed and five had died in CR. Intensification of remission including autologous PBSCT is feasible in about half of harvested patients aged 61 to 70 years old, and did not improve the general outcome. This shows the limitations of autologous PBSCT and other intensive treatment modalities in elderly AML patients. Key words: acute myeloid leukemia, elderly, autologous stem cell transplantation.Haematologica 04/2007; 92(3):389-96. DOI:10.3324/haematol.10552 · 5.87 Impact Factor