The heritable disorder ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is caused by mutations in the AT-mutated (ATM) gene with manifestations that include predisposition to lymphoproliferative cancers and hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR). We investigated gene expression changes in response to IR in human lymphoblasts and fibroblasts from seven normal and seven AT-affected individuals. Both cell types displayed ATM-dependent gene expression changes after IR, with some responses shared and some responses varying with cell type and dose. Interestingly, after 5 Gy IR, lymphoblasts displayed ATM-independent responses not seen in the fibroblasts at this dose, which likely reflect signaling through ATM-related kinases, e.g., ATR, in the absence of ATM function.
"The down-regulated genes in SYK-induced cells included the human homologs of 3 yeast genes (viz.: CDC20, DBF4, BUB3) previously demonstrated to have peak expressionintheMphaseoftheyeastcellcycle(Rowicka et al., 2007). Inactivation of CDC25C by ATM signaling triggered by DNA damage (Innes et al., 2006; Stracker et al., 2008) has been shown to be associated with Fig. 8. siRNA-mediated depletion of Native SYK prevents nocodazole-induced S216- phosphorylation of native CDC25C in human cells. [a–c] Anti-CDC25C(pS216), anti-CDC25C, and anti-GRP78 Western blot analysis of whole cell lysates from 293T cells treated with medium only (CON), SYK-siRNA or scr-siRNA that was used as a control. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of SYK as a molecular target in B-lineage leukemia/lymphoma cells prompted the development of SYK inhibitors as a new class of anti-cancer drug candidates. Here we report that induction of the SYK gene expression in human cells causes a significant down-regulation of evolutionarily conserved genes associated with mitosis and cell cycle progression providing unprecedented evidence that SYK is a master regulator of cell cycle regulatory checkpoint genes in human cells. We further show that SYK regulates the G2 checkpoint by physically associating with and inhibiting the dual-specificity phosphatase CDC25C via phosporylation of its S216 residue. SYK depletion by RNA interference or treatment with the chemical SYK inhibitor prevented nocodazole-treated human cell lines from activating the G2 checkpoint via CDC25C S216-phoshorylation and resulted in polyploidy. Our study provides genetic and biochemical evidence that spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) has a unique role in the activation of the G2 checkpoint in both nonlymphohematopoietic and B-lineage lymphoid cells. This previously unknown role of SYK as a cell cycle checkpoint regulator represents an unforeseen and significant challenge for inhibitors of SYK ATP binding site.
"These genome wide transcriptional responses are very tightly regulated and complex. They also differ between different cell types , possibly depending on different sensitivities to DNA damage in general and to different cellular functionalities. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Double strand (ds) DNA breaks are a form of DNA damage that can be generated from both genotoxic exposures and physiologic processes, can disrupt cellular functions and can be lethal if not repaired properly. Physiologic dsDNA breaks are generated in a variety of normal cellular functions, including the RAG endonuclease-mediated rearrangement of antigen receptor genes during the normal development of lymphocytes. We previously showed that physiologic breaks initiate lymphocyte development-specific transcriptional programs. Here we compare transcriptional responses to physiological DNA breaks with responses to genotoxic DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation.
We identified a central lymphocyte-specific transcriptional response common to both physiologic and genotoxic breaks, which includes many lymphocyte developmental processes. Genotoxic damage causes robust alterations to pathways associated with B cell activation and increased proliferation, suggesting that genotoxic damage initiates not only the normal B cell maturation processes but also mimics activated B cell response to antigenic agents. Notably, changes including elevated levels of expression of Kras and mmu-miR-155 and the repression of Socs1 were observed following genotoxic damage, reflecting induction of a cancer-prone phenotype.
Comparing these transcriptional responses provides a greater understanding of the mechanisms cells use in the differentiation between types of DNA damage and the potential consequences of different sources of damage. These results suggest genotoxic damage may induce a unique cancer-prone phenotype and processes mimicking activated B cell response to antigenic agents, as well as the normal B cell maturation processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated) is an essential checkpoint kinase that signals DNA double-strand breaks in eukaryotes. Its depletion causes meiotic and somatic defects in Arabidopsis and progressive motor impairment accompanied by several cell deficiencies in patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT). To obtain a comprehensive view of the ATM pathway in plants, we performed a time-course analysis of seedling responses by combining confocal laser scanning microscopy studies of root development and genome-wide expression profiling of wild-type (WT) and homozygous ATM-deficient mutants challenged with a dose of gamma-rays (IR) that is sublethal for WT plants. Early morphologic defects in meristematic stem cells indicated that AtATM, an Arabidopsis homolog of the human ATM gene, is essential for maintaining the quiescent center and controlling the differentiation of initial cells after exposure to IR. Results of several microarray experiments performed with whole seedlings and roots up to 5 h post-IR were compiled in a single table, which was used to import gene information and extract gene sets. Sequence and function homology searches; import of spatio-temporal, cell cycling, and mutant-constitutive expression characteristics; and a simplified functional classification system were used to identify novel genes in all functional classes. The hundreds of radiomodulated genes identified were not a random collection, but belonged to functional pathways such as those of the cell cycle; cell death and repair; DNA replication, repair, and recombination; and transcription; translation; and signaling, indicating the strong cell reprogramming and double-strand break abrogation functions of ATM checkpoints. Accordingly, genes in all functional classes were either down or up-regulated concomitantly with downregulation of chromatin deacetylases or upregulation of acetylases and methylases, respectively. Determining the early transcriptional indicators of prolonged S-G2 phases that coincided with cell proliferation delay, or an anticipated subsequent auxin increase, accelerated cell differentiation or death, was used to link IR-regulated hallmark functions and tissue phenotypes after IR. The transcription burst was almost exclusively AtATM-dependent or weakly AtATR-dependent, and followed two major trends of expression in atm: (i)-loss or severe attenuation and delay, and (ii)-inverse and/or stochastic, as well as specific, enabling one to distinguish IR/ATM pathway constituents. Our data provide a large resource for studies on the interaction between plant checkpoints of the cell cycle, development, hormone response, and DNA repair functions, because IR-induced transcriptional changes partially overlap with the response to environmental stress. Putative connections of ATM to stem cell maintenance pathways after IR are also discussed.
PLoS ONE 02/2007; 2(5):e430. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0000430 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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