ATM requirement in gene expression responses to ionizing radiation in human lymphoblasts and fibroblasts
ABSTRACT The heritable disorder ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is caused by mutations in the AT-mutated (ATM) gene with manifestations that include predisposition to lymphoproliferative cancers and hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR). We investigated gene expression changes in response to IR in human lymphoblasts and fibroblasts from seven normal and seven AT-affected individuals. Both cell types displayed ATM-dependent gene expression changes after IR, with some responses shared and some responses varying with cell type and dose. Interestingly, after 5 Gy IR, lymphoblasts displayed ATM-independent responses not seen in the fibroblasts at this dose, which likely reflect signaling through ATM-related kinases, e.g., ATR, in the absence of ATM function.
SourceAvailable from: Fatih M Uckun[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The identification of SYK as a molecular target in B-lineage leukemia/lymphoma cells prompted the development of SYK inhibitors as a new class of anti-cancer drug candidates. Here we report that induction of the SYK gene expression in human cells causes a significant down-regulation of evolutionarily conserved genes associated with mitosis and cell cycle progression providing unprecedented evidence that SYK is a master regulator of cell cycle regulatory checkpoint genes in human cells. We further show that SYK regulates the G2 checkpoint by physically associating with and inhibiting the dual-specificity phosphatase CDC25C via phosporylation of its S216 residue. SYK depletion by RNA interference or treatment with the chemical SYK inhibitor prevented nocodazole-treated human cell lines from activating the G2 checkpoint via CDC25C S216-phoshorylation and resulted in polyploidy. Our study provides genetic and biochemical evidence that spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) has a unique role in the activation of the G2 checkpoint in both nonlymphohematopoietic and B-lineage lymphoid cells. This previously unknown role of SYK as a cell cycle checkpoint regulator represents an unforeseen and significant challenge for inhibitors of SYK ATP binding site.11/2014; 1(1):16-28. DOI:10.1016/j.ebiom.2014.10.019
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ABSTRACT: Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated gene (ATM). AT carriers with one mutant ATM allele are usually not severely affected although they carry increased risk of cancer. There has not been an easy and reliable diagnostic method to identify AT carriers. Cell cycle checkpoint functions upon ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage and gene expression signatures were analyzed in the current study to test for differential responses in human lymphoblastoid cell lines with different ATM genotypes. While both dose- and time-dependent G1 and G2 checkpoint functions were highly attenuated in ATM-/- cell lines, these functions were preserved in ATM+/- cell lines equivalent to ATM+/+ cell lines. However, gene expression signatures at both baseline (consisting of 203 probes) and post-IR treatment (consisting of 126 probes) were able to distinguish ATM+/- cell lines from ATM+/+ and ATM-/- cell lines. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis of the genes in the baseline signature indicated that ATM function-related categories, DNA metabolism, cell cycle, cell death control and the p53 signaling pathway, were over-represented. The same analyses of the genes in the IR-responsive signature revealed that biological categories including response to DNA damage stimulus, p53 signaling and cell cycle pathways were over-represented, which again confirmed involvement of ATM functions. The results indicate that AT carriers who have unaffected G1 and G2 checkpoint functions can be distinguished from normal individuals and AT patients by expression signatures of genes related to ATM functions.Physiological Genomics 08/2013; DOI:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00064.2013 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ionizing radiation (IR) induces cellular stress responses, such as signal transduction, gene expression, protein modification, and metabolite change that affect cellular behavior. We analyzed X-irradiated human Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphoblastoid cells and normal fibroblasts to search for metabolites that would be suitable IR-responsive markers by Liquid Chromotography–Mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Mass spectra, as analyzed with principal component analysis, showed that the proportion of peaks with IR-induced change was relatively small compared with the influence of culture time. Dozens of peaks that had either been upregulated or downregulated by IR were extracted as candidate IR markers. The IR-changed peaks were identified by comparing mock-treated groups to 100 mGy-irradiated groups that had recovered after 10 h, and the results indicated that the metabolites involved in nucleoside synthesis increased and that some acylcarnitine levels decreased in B lymphoblastoids. Some peaks changed by as much as 20 mGy, indicating the presence of an IR-sensitive signal transduction/metabolism control mechanism in these cells. On the other hand, we could not find common IR-changed peaks in fibroblasts of different origin. These data suggest that cell phenotype-specific pathways exist, even in low-dose responses, and could determine cell behavior.Journal of Radiation Research 08/2014; Fax(1):81-24. DOI:10.1093/jrr/rru078 · 1.69 Impact Factor