Aflatoxin B-1 contamination of parboiled rice samples collected from different states of India: A multi-centre study
ABSTRACT Under a multi-centre study conducted by the Indian Council of Medical Research, 1,511 samples of parboiled rice were collected from rural and urban areas of 11 states representing different geographical regions of India. These samples were analysed for contamination with aflatoxin B(1.) The presence of aflatoxin B(1) at levels=5 microg g(-1) was found in 38.5% of the total number of samples of the parboiled rice. About 17% of the total samples showed the presence of aflatoxin B(1) above the Indian regulatory limit of 30 microg kg(-1). No statistically significant difference in percentage of samples contaminated with >30 microg kg(-1) was observed between pooled rural (19.4%) and urban (14.5%) data. A median value of 15 microg kg(-1) of aflatoxin B(1) was observed in samples from Assam, Bihar and Tripura. In all other states surveyed the median value was <5 microg?kg(-1).
- SourceAvailable from: Carlos A F Oliveira
- "However, aflatoxins were present at levels ranging from 0.2 to 1.8 µgkg −1 , which are less than the 2 µgkg −1 aflatoxin B1 and 4 µgkg −1 total aflatoxin levels established by the European Union for cereal products for direct human consumption. Of 1,511 samples of parboiled rice collected from rural and urban areas of 11 states in India, 38.5% were contaminated with aflatoxin B1 at >5 µgkg −1 and 17% of the samples were contaminated with lower levels of aflatoxin B1 (Toteza et al., 2006). In Bihar, 67 composite rice samples prepared from 170 samples obtained from various storage systems were contaminated with aflatoxin at 0 to 810 µgkg −1 (Jeswal, 1986). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "In another study, in which AFB1 was estimated for 1,200 samples by ELISA, 67.8% of the samples were positive to AFB1 (Reddy et al. 2009). Toteja et al. (2006) examined parboiled rice collected from India and found 38.5% of the samples to be positive for AFB1. More recently, 9% of rice samples in Ecuador were shown to be contaminated with aflatoxins with a range of 6.8– 40 μg/kg (Mühlemann et al. 1997). "
ABSTRACT: One hundred unpackaged rice samples, each weighing 500 g, were randomly collected at retail stores and open markets in the largest rice growing area (Thrace) in Turkey and analysed for mould counts, predominant mould genera, moisture content and mycotoxin levels. Mould counts ranged from 1.0 × 10(1) to 1.5 × 10(4) cfu/g in 70 of 100 samples, and the correlation between moisture content and mould count was significant (p ≤ 0.05). Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp., potential mycotoxin producers, were the dominant moulds. In one area from which samples were collected, the mycotoxin content of rice was found to be positively correlated with moisture content; samples with higher moisture also contained higher numbers of moulds. The levels of total aflatoxins, aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A were higher than the maximum tolerable limits (4, 2 and 3 μg/kg, according to the EC Regulation and the Turkish Food Codex) for 32, 14 and 30 of 100 rice samples, respectively. This is the first comprehensive report of ochratoxin A levels in rice grown in Thrace, Turkey.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 07/2011; 178(1-4):271-80. DOI:10.1007/s10661-010-1688-9 · 1.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Aflatoxins may occur in peanuts, corn (maize) and cottonseed, as well as in many other agricultural commodities (Pittet 2001). Occurrence in rice has also been reported in a number of countries (Reddy et al. 2008; Gummert et al. 2009): Sri Lanka (Bandara et al. 1991), Bangladesh (Dawlatana et al. 2002), Japan (Tabata et al. 1993), China (Liu and Gao 2006; Wang and Liu 2007), Vietnam (Nguyen et al. 2007), Thailand (Shank et al. 1972), India (Pande et al. 1990; Toteja et al. 2006; Reddy et al. 2009), the Philippines (Sales and Yoshizawa 2005), Korea (Park et al. 2004, 2005a), United Arab Emirates (Osman et al. 1999), Turkey (Aydin et al. 2010), Tunisia (Ghali et al. 2008), Nigeria (Hussaini et al. 2007), Coˆte d'Ivoire (Sangare- Tigori et al. 2006b), Uruguay (Pin˜eiro et al. 1996), Brazil (Soares and Rodriguez-Amaya 1989; de Carvalho et al. 2010), and the United States (Abbas and Shier 2009), as well as in imported/ marketed rice in the United Kingdom (Scudamore et al. 1998; Food Standards Agency (FSA) 2002), Austria (Reiter et al. 2010), Iran (Mazaheri 2009) and Sweden (Fredlund et al. 2009; Nordkvist et al. 2009). The study in Vietnam indicated that the rainy season was a major risk factor for occurrence of AFB 1 in rice (Nguyen et al. 2007). "
ABSTRACT: Approximately 200 samples of rice (including white, brown, red, black, basmati and jasmine, as well as wild rice) from several different countries, including the United States, Canada, Pakistan, India and Thailand, were analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins by separate liquid chromatographic methods in two different years. The mean concentrations for aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) were 0.19 and 0.17 ng g(-1) with respective positive incidences of 56% and 43% (≥ the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.002 ng g(-1)). Twenty-three samples analysed in the second year also contained aflatoxin B(2) (AFB(2)) at levels ≥LOD of 0.002 ng g(-1). The five most contaminated samples in each year contained 1.44-7.14 ng AFB(1) g(-1) (year 1) and 1.45-3.48 ng AFB(1) g(-1) (year 2); they were mostly basmati rice from India and Pakistan and black and red rice from Thailand. The average concentrations of ochratoxin A (OTA) were 0.05 and 0.005 ng g(-1) in year 1 and year 2, respectively; incidences of samples containing ≥LOD of 0.05 ng g(-1) were 43% and 1%, respectively, in the 2 years. All positive OTA results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. For fumonisins, concentrations of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) averaged 4.5 ng g(-1) in 15 positive samples (≥0.7 ng g(-1)) from year 1 (n = 99); fumonisin B(2) (FB(2)) and fumonisin B(3) (FB(3)) were also present (≥1 ng g(-1)). In the second year there was only one positive sample (14 ng g(-1) FB(1)) out of 100 analysed. All positive FB(1) results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS.Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 06/2011; 28(6):767-74. DOI:10.1080/19440049.2011.559279 · 2.34 Impact Factor