Under a multi-centre study conducted by the Indian Council of Medical Research, 1,511 samples of parboiled rice were collected from rural and urban areas of 11 states representing different geographical regions of India. These samples were analysed for contamination with aflatoxin B(1.) The presence of aflatoxin B(1) at levels=5 microg g(-1) was found in 38.5% of the total number of samples of the parboiled rice. About 17% of the total samples showed the presence of aflatoxin B(1) above the Indian regulatory limit of 30 microg kg(-1). No statistically significant difference in percentage of samples contaminated with >30 microg kg(-1) was observed between pooled rural (19.4%) and urban (14.5%) data. A median value of 15 microg kg(-1) of aflatoxin B(1) was observed in samples from Assam, Bihar and Tripura. In all other states surveyed the median value was <5 microg?kg(-1).
"However, aflatoxins were present at levels ranging from 0.2 to 1.8 µgkg −1 , which are less than the 2 µgkg −1 aflatoxin B1 and 4 µgkg −1 total aflatoxin levels established by the European Union for cereal products for direct human consumption. Of 1,511 samples of parboiled rice collected from rural and urban areas of 11 states in India, 38.5% were contaminated with aflatoxin B1 at >5 µgkg −1 and 17% of the samples were contaminated with lower levels of aflatoxin B1 (Toteza et al., 2006). In Bihar, 67 composite rice samples prepared from 170 samples obtained from various storage systems were contaminated with aflatoxin at 0 to 810 µgkg −1 (Jeswal, 1986). "
"In India, high levels of aflatoxins have been detected in rain damaged rice grains and paddy7. High aflatoxin levels have also been reported in parboiled rice8. Various surveys conducted in different parts of the world indicated considerable levels of aflatoxins and ochratoxins in rice910. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out on stored rice variety PAU 201 in Punjab that was not permitted for milling and public distribution due to the presence of damaged grains at levels exceeding the regulatory limits of 4.75 per cent. The aim of the study was to determine fungal and aflatoxin contamination in the rice samples to assess hazard from the presence of damaged grains. Presence of iron in discoloured rice grains was also assessed.
Stored samples of paddy of PAU 201 rice variety were collected from six districts of Punjab, milled and analysed for presence of fungal and aflatoxin contamination. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and Prussian blue staining was used to determine fungal spores and presence of iron, respectively.
Aflatoxin analysis of rice samples indicated that none exceeded the Food Safety and Standards (Contaminants, Toxins and Residues) Regulations, 2011 tolerance limit of 30 μg/kg and majority of the samples had levels <15 μg/kg. The proportion of damaged grains exceeding the limit of 5 per cent was observed in 85.7 per cent of the samples. SEM and Prussian blue staining and EDX analysis of black tipped and pin point damaged rice grains did not show presence of fungal structures and presence of iron.
The results of the study indicated that the stored rice samples did not pose any health concern with respect to aflatoxin contamination as per the criteria laid down by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India.
The Indian Journal of Medical Research 07/2012; 136(1):89-97. · 1.40 Impact Factor
"In another study, in which AFB1 was estimated for 1,200 samples by ELISA, 67.8% of the samples were positive to AFB1 (Reddy et al. 2009). Toteja et al. (2006) examined parboiled rice collected from India and found 38.5% of the samples to be positive for AFB1. More recently, 9% of rice samples in Ecuador were shown to be contaminated with aflatoxins with a range of 6.8– 40 μg/kg (Mühlemann et al. 1997). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One hundred unpackaged rice samples, each weighing 500 g, were randomly collected at retail stores and open markets in the largest rice growing area (Thrace) in Turkey and analysed for mould counts, predominant mould genera, moisture content and mycotoxin levels. Mould counts ranged from 1.0 × 10(1) to 1.5 × 10(4) cfu/g in 70 of 100 samples, and the correlation between moisture content and mould count was significant (p ≤ 0.05). Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp., potential mycotoxin producers, were the dominant moulds. In one area from which samples were collected, the mycotoxin content of rice was found to be positively correlated with moisture content; samples with higher moisture also contained higher numbers of moulds. The levels of total aflatoxins, aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A were higher than the maximum tolerable limits (4, 2 and 3 μg/kg, according to the EC Regulation and the Turkish Food Codex) for 32, 14 and 30 of 100 rice samples, respectively. This is the first comprehensive report of ochratoxin A levels in rice grown in Thrace, Turkey.
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