Caldesmon is an actin-binding protein that is capable of stabilizing actin filaments against actin-severing proteins, inhibiting actomyosin ATPase activity, and inhibiting Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization in vitro. Caldesmon is a substrate of cdc2 kinase and Erk1/2 MAPK, and phosphorylation by either of these kinases reverses the inhibitory effects of caldesmon. Cdc2-mediated caldesmon phosphorylation and the resulting dissociation of caldesmon from actin filaments are essential for M-phase progression during mitosis. Cells overexpressing the actin-binding carboxyterminal fragment of caldesmon fail to release the fragment completely from actin filaments during mitosis, resulting in a higher frequency of multinucleated cells. PKC-mediated MEK/Erk/caldesmon phosphorylation is an important signaling cascade in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Furthermore, PKC activation has been shown to remodel actin stress fibers into F-actin-enriched podosome columns in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Podosomes are cytoskeletal adhesion structures associated with the release of metalloproteases and degradation of extracellular matrix during cell invasion. Interestingly, caldesmon is one of the few actin-binding proteins that is associated with podosomes but excluded from focal adhesions. Caldesmon also inhibits the function of gelsolin and Arp2/3 complex that are essential for the formation of podosomes. Thus, caldesmon appears to be well positioned for playing a modulatory role in the formation of podosomes. Defining the roles of actin filament-stabilizing proteins such as caldesmon and tropomyosin in the formation of podosomes should provide a more complete understanding of molecular systems that regulate the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in cell transformation and invasion.
"Calmoduline-like 3 (calml3) was over-expressed after 24 hrs of DEHP exposure. Calmodulin (CaM) is a calcium-binding protein that translates the Ca2+ signal into a wide variety of cellular processes, including the regulation of cytoskeleton remodelling acting with Caldesmon  or with Wnt pathway . Calml3 is a CaM family member protein which increases cell motility by stabilizing and increasing myosin-10 for cell migration . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is a commonly used plasticizer in polyvinylchloride (PVC) formulations and a potentially non-genotoxic carcinogen. The aim of this study was to identify genes whose level of expression is altered by DEHP by using a global wide-genome approach in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells, a model similar to human cells regarding their responses to this type of carcinogen. With mRNA Differential Display (DD), we analysed the transcriptional regulation of SHE cells exposed to 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 μM of DEHP for 24 hrs, conditions which induced neoplastic transformation of these cells. A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to confirm differential expression of genes identified by DD.
Gene expression profiling showed 178 differentially-expressed fragments corresponding to 122 genes after tblastx comparisons, 79 up-regulated and 43 down-regulated. The genes of interest were involved in many biological pathways, including signal transduction, regulation of the cytoskeleton, xenobiotic metabolism, apoptosis, lipidogenesis, protein conformation, transport and cell cycle. We then focused particularly on genes involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton, one of the processes occurring during carcinogenesis and in the early steps of neoplastic transformation. Twenty one cytoskeleton-related genes were studied by qPCR. The down-regulated genes were involved in focal adhesion or cell junction. The up-regulated genes were involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and this would suggest a role of cellular plasticity in the mechanism of chemical carcinogenesis. The gene expression changes identified in the present study were PPAR-independent.
This study identified a set of genes whose expression is altered by DEHP exposure in mammalian embryo cells. This is the first study that elucidates the genomic changes of DEHP involved in the organization of the cytoskeleton. The latter genes may be candidates as biomarkers predictive of early events in the multistep carcinogenic process.
"While studies suggest that a local minimum of microtubule density or microtubule depolymerization induces the formation of contractile rings through activation of RhoA , , how RhoA is activated has yet to be determined. In addition, although both the maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were found to regulate actin-myosin interactions –, interplay between these two kinases in this context has not been reported. Furthermore, unlike other cell cycle events, cytokinesis has been particularly resistant to in vitro biochemical approaches, making research progress very slow . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interplay between maturation-promoting factor (MPF), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Rho GTPase during actin-myosin interactions has yet to be determined. The mechanism by which microtubule disrupters induce the formation of ooplasmic protrusion during chemical-assisted enucleation of mammalian oocytes is unknown. Moreover, a suitable model is urgently needed for the study of cytokinesis. We have established a model of chemical-induced cytokinesis and have studied the signaling events leading to cytokinesis using this model. The results suggested that microtubule inhibitors activated MPF, which induced actomyosin assembly (formation of ooplasmic protrusion) by activating RhoA and thus MAPK. While MAPK controlled actin recruitment on its own, MPF promoted myosin enrichment by activating RhoA and MAPK. A further chemical treatment of oocytes with protrusions induced constriction of the actomyosin ring by inactivating MPF while activating RhoA. In conclusion, the present data suggested that the assembly and contraction of the actomyosin ring were two separable steps: while an increase in MPF activity promoted the assembly through RhoA-mediated activation of MAPK, a decrease in MPF activity triggered contraction of the ring by activating RhoA.
PLoS ONE 09/2010; 5(9):e12706. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0012706 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Activated ERK1/2 molecules form homodimers that are able to translocate into the nucleus, phosphorylate transcription factors such as Myc, and thereby regulate gene expression (Khokhlatchev et al., 1998; Lewis et al., 1998). In undifferentiated cells, MAPK signaling mainly promotes cell growth, but several indications exist that this cascade also controls cytoskeleton remodelling and thereby shape, contractility, and motility (English et al., 1999; Hai and Gu, 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Migration of fibroblasts is important in wound healing. Here, we demonstrate a role and a mechanism for h3/acidic calponin (aCaP, CNN3) in REF52.2 cell motility, a fibroblast line rich in actin filaments. We show that the actin-binding protein h3/acidic calponin associates with stress fibers in the absence of stimulation but is targeted to the cell cortex and podosome-like structures after stimulation with a phorbol ester, phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). By coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization, we show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and protein kinase C (PKC)alpha constitutively associate with h3/acidic calponin and are cotargeted with h3/acidic calponin in the presence of PDBu. This targeting can be blocked by a PKC inhibitor but does not require phosphorylation of h3/acidic calponin at the PKC sites S175 or T184. Knockdown of h3/acidic calponin results in a loss of PDBu-mediated ERK1/2 targeting, whereas PKCalpha targeting is unaffected. Caldesmon is an actin-binding protein that regulates actomyosin interactions and is a known substrate of ERK1/2. Both ERK1/2 activity and nonmuscle l-caldesmon phosphorylation are blocked by h3/acidic calponin knockdown. Furthermore, h3/acidic calponin knockdown inhibits REF52.2 migration in an in vitro wound healing assay. Our findings are consistent with a model whereby h3/acidic calponin controls fibroblast migration by regulation of ERK1/2-mediated l-caldesmon phosphorylation.
Molecular biology of the cell 02/2010; 21(8):1409-22. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E09-06-0451 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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