Laparoscopic left lateral hepatic lobectomy: a safer and faster technique.
ABSTRACT Laparoscopy for liver resection is highly specialized field because laparoscopic liver surgery presents severe technical difficulties, such as control of bleeding and risk of gas embolism. At present, a limited number of laparoscopic anatomical left lobectomies have been reported in the literature, but we believe that the use of stapling devices has made this technique safer and faster.
From January 2000 to May 2005, eight patients (five men, three women; mean age, 60.5 years) underwent laparoscopic anatomical left lobectomy at our department. Seven patients presented with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis, while one patient had a large symptomatic angioma. The average size of the lesions was 4.18 cm (range, 3.6-7.1 cm); all the lesions were localized in the anatomical left lobe (segments II-III). Transection of the liver parenchyma, together with sectioning of the vascular pedicle for segment II and III and of the left hepatic vein, was obtained by the use of stapling devices.
The mean operative time was 142 min (range, 120-180 min). There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications, and blood transfusions were not required. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 5.75 days.
The key points of the technique are: late mobilization of the liver; no transection of the round ligament; no surrounding or taping of the portal pedicles or of the left hepatic vein; and the use of three consecutive linear staplers, turned to the left for transecting the liver parenchyma and vascular pedicle together. This technique, in our opinion, should be considered a new good option for patients with isolated lesions of the left lateral segments, but it must be performed by surgeons trained in both liver and advanced laparoscopic surgery.
- SourceAvailable from: Juan Santiago Azagra[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess the feasibility, safety, and outcome of laparoscopic liver resection for malignant liver tumors. The precise role of laparoscopy in resection of liver malignancies (hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC] and liver metastases) remains controversial despite an increasing number of publications reporting laparoscopic resection of benign liver tumors. A retrospective study was performed in 11 surgical centers in Europe regarding their experience with laparoscopic resection of liver malignancies. Detailed questionnaires were sent to each surgeon focusing on patient characteristics, clinical data, type and characteristics of the tumor, technical details of the operation, and early and late clinical outcome. All patients had radiologic investigations at follow-up to exclude disease recurrence. From February 1994 to December 2000, 37 patients with malignant liver tumors were included in this study. Ten patients had HCC, including 9 with cirrhotic liver, and 27 patients had liver metastases. The mean tumor size was 3.3 cm, and 89% of the tumors were located in the left lobe or in the anterior segments of the right liver. Liver procedures included 12 wedge resections, 9 segmentectomies, 14 bisegmentectomies (including 13 left lateral segmentectomies), and 2 major hepatectomies. The transfusion rate, the use of pedicular clamping, the conversion rate (13.5% in the whole series), and the complication rate were significantly greater in patients with HCC. There were no deaths. Postoperative complications occurred in eight patients (22%). The surgical margin was less than 1 cm in 30% of the patients. During a mean follow-up of 14 months, the 2-year disease-free survival was 44% for patients with HCC and 53% for patients having hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. No port-site metastases were observed during follow-up. In patients with small malignant tumors, located in the left lateral segments or in the anterior segments of the right liver, laparoscopic resection is feasible and safe. The complication rate is low, except in patients with HCC on cirrhotic liver. By using laparoscopic ultrasound, a 1-cm free surgical margin should be routinely obtained. The late outcome needs to be evaluated in expert centers.Annals of Surgery 08/2002; 236(1):90-7. · 6.33 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although the feasibility of minor laparoscopic liver resections (LLR) has been demonstrated, data comparing the open vs the laparoscopic approach to liver resection are lacking. We compared 30 LLR with 30 open liver resections (OLR) in a pair-matched analysis. The indications for resection were malignant disease in 47% of the LLR and 83% of the OLR. The average size of the lesions was 42 mm for LLR and 41 mm for OLR. Five wedge resections, 12 segmentectomies, and 13 bisegmentectomies were performed in each group. The conversion rate for LLR was nil. The mean operative time was 148 min for LLR and 142 min for OLR. Mean blood loss was minimal in the LLR group (320 vs 479 ml; p < 0.05). Postoperative complications occurred in 6.6% of the patients in each group; there were no deaths. The mean postoperative hospital stay was shorter for LLR patients (6.4 vs 8.7 days; p < 0.05). In tumors, the resection margin was <1 cm in 43% of the LLR patients and 40% of the OLR patients ( p = NS). Minor LLR of the anterior segments has the same rates of mortality and morbidity as OLR. However, the laparoscopic approach reduces blood loss and postoperative hospital stay.Surgical Endoscopy 12/2003; 17(12):1914-8. · 3.43 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility and outcome of laparoscopic hepatectomy in patients with solid liver tumors. Although the laparoscopic approach has become popular in the surgical field, the value of laparoscopy in liver surgery is unknown. Fifteen patients with solid liver tumors underwent 16 consecutive laparoscopic resections at the authors' institution between 1994 and 1999. Indications were symptomatic hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, liver cell adenoma, isolated metastasis from a colon cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The laparoscopic procedure was performed using four to seven ports (four 10-mm, two 5-mm, and one 12-mm). One patient underwent a major hepatic resection (right lobectomy); the others underwent minor hepatic resections (left lateral segmentectomies, IVb subsegmentectomies, segmentectomy, and nonanatomical excisions). The laparoscopic procedure was uneventful in 15 patients; one patient required conversion to open laparotomy because of inadequate free surgical margins. Laparoscopic surgery of the liver is feasible. The use of this new technical approach offers many advantages but requires extensive experience in hepatobiliary surgery and laparoscopic skills. The authors' experience suggests that laparoscopic procedures should be reserved for benign tumors in selected cases. Its application must be verified by further studies.Annals of Surgery 12/2000; 232(5):641-5. · 6.33 Impact Factor