Regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delivery by IGF binding proteins and receptors.
ABSTRACT Delivery of growth factors via the bloodstream for the treatment of various diseases is regulated in part by interactions with cell surface binding elements. Understanding the kinetics of growth factor binding and transport by cells would, therefore, be advantageous. This report quantifies the binding, internalization, and transport of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) across bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) cultured in vitro. Binding analysis indicated that IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), primarily localized with the extracellular matrix, were the primary IGF-I binding elements in our system, with twice as many binding sites (8.0 +/- 1.9 x 10(4) per cell) as IGF-I receptors (IGF-IR) (3.9 +/- 0.6 x 10(4) per cell). Internalization of IGF-I by IGF-IR, but not IGFBPs, was detected, however both receptor and IGFBP binding were shown to inhibit rather than enhance the transport of intact IGF-I, albeit in different ways. IGFBPs retained IGF-I in the apical region while IGF-IR binding led to protein degradation. Based on our computational modeling and experimental data, we hypothesize that IGFBPs could function as a reservoir for IGF-I, sequestering it for later release and transport, and that this reservoir function of the IGFBPs could be used to promote controlled localized delivery of IGF-I.
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ABSTRACT: The production of extracellular matrix (ECM) components of articular cartilage is regulated, among other factors, by an intercellular signaling mechanism mediated by the interaction of cell surface receptors (CSR) with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). In ECM, the presence of binding proteins (IGFBP) hinders IGF-1 delivery to CSR. It has been reported that levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP in obese population are, respectively, lower and higher than those found in normal population. In this study, an experimental-numerical approach was adopted to quantify the effect of this metabolic alteration found in obese population on the homeostasis of femoral hip cartilage. A new computational model, based on the mechano-electrochemical mixture theory, was developed to describe competitive binding kinetics of IGF-1 with IGFBP and CSR, and associated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biosynthesis. Moreover, a gait analysis was carried out on obese and normal subjects to experimentally characterize mechanical loads on hip cartilage during walking. This information was deployed into the model to account for effects of physiologically relevant tissue deformation on GAG production in ECM. Numerical simulations were performed to compare GAG biosynthesis in femoral hip cartilage of normal and obese subjects. Results indicated that the lower ratio of IGF-1 to IGFBP found in obese population reduces cartilage GAG concentration up to 18 % when compared to normal population. Moreover, moderate physical activity, such as walking, has a modest beneficial effect on GAG production. The findings of this study suggest that IGF-1/IGFBP metabolic unbalance should be accounted for when considering the association of obesity with hip osteoarthritis.Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology 12/2013; 13(5). DOI:10.1007/s10237-013-0545-5 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a well-known anabolic agent in intervertebral discs (IVD), promoting both proteoglycan (PG) biosynthesis and cell proliferation. Accordingly, it is believed that IGF-1 plays a central role in IVD homeostasis. The IGF-mediated anabolic activity in IVD occurs when the growth factor, free from binding proteins (IGFBP), binds to IGF cell surface receptors (IGF-1R). Previous studies reported that, with aging, cellular expression of IGFBP increases, while that of IGF-1R decreases. Both changes in cellular signals are thought to be among the factors that are responsible for the age-related decline in IGF-mediated PG biosynthesis, which ultimately leads to disc degeneration. In this study, a computational model describing the role of IGF-1 in the homeostasis of IVD was deployed in a parametric analysis to investigate the effects of age-related changes in expression of IGF-1R and IGFBP on the IGF-mediated upregulation of PG biosynthesis and cellular proliferation. It was found that changes in the expression of IGF-1R and IGFBP mostly affected the nucleus pulposus, while in the most external disc regions (annulus fibrosus and cartilage endplates) the IVD homeostatic balance was unaltered. It was shown that a decrease of IGF-1R expression caused reduction of both PG levels and cell density in the tissue. In contrast, increase in IGFBP expression increased both PG and cell concentration, suggesting that such change in cellular signaling may be a plausible defense mechanism from age-related IVD degeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Journal of Biomechanics 11/2014; 48(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.11.021 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a well-known anabolic agent for intervertebral disc (IVD), promoting both proteoglycan (PG) biosynthesis and cell proliferation. Accordingly, it is believed that IGF-1 may play a central role in IVD homeostasis. Furthermore, the exogenous administration of IGF-1 has been proposed as a possible therapeutic strategy for disc degeneration. The objectives of this study were to develop a new computational framework for describing the mechanisms regulating IGF-mediated homeostasis in IVD, and to apply this numerical tool for investigating the effectiveness of exogenous administration of IGF-1 for curing disc degeneration. A diffusive-reactive model was developed for describing competitive binding of IGF-1 to its binding proteins and cell surface receptors, with the latter reaction initiating the intracellular signaling mechanism leading to PG production and cell proliferation. Because PG production increases cell metabolic rate, and cell proliferation increases nutritional demand, nutrients transport and metabolism were also included into the model, and co-regulated, together with IGF-1, IVD cellularity. The sustainability and the effectiveness of IGF-mediated anabolism were investigated for conditions of pathologically insufficient nutrient supply, and for the case of exogenous administration of IGF-1 to degenerated IVD. Results showed that pathological nutrients deprivation, by decreasing cellularity, caused a reduction of PG biosynthesis. Also, exogenous administration of IGF-1 was only beneficial in well-nourished regions of IVD, and exacerbated cell mortality in malnourished regions. These findings remark the central role of nutrition in IVD health, and suggest that adequate nutritional supply is paramount for achieving a successful IGF-based therapy for disc degeneration.Journal of Biomechanics 05/2014; 47(10). DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.04.046 · 2.66 Impact Factor