Antibody and cellular immune responses following DNA vaccination and EHV-1 infection of ponies.
ABSTRACT Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is the cause of serious disease with high economic impact on the horse industry, as outbreaks of EHV-1 disease occur every year despite the frequent use of vaccines. Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) are important for protection from primary and reactivating latent EHV-1 infection. DNA vaccination is a powerful technique for stimulating CTLs, and the aim of this study was to assess antibody and cellular immune responses and protection resulting from DNA vaccination of ponies with combinations of EHV-1 genes. Fifteen ponies were divided into three groups of five ponies each. Two vaccination groups were DNA vaccinated on four different occasions with combinations of plasmids encoding the gB, gC, and gD glycoproteins or plasmids encoding the immediate early (IE) and early proteins (UL5) of EHV-1, using the PowderJect XR research device. Total dose of DNA/plasmid/vaccination were 25 microg. A third group comprised unvaccinated control ponies. All ponies were challenge infected with EHV-1 6 weeks after the last vaccination, and protection from clinical disease, viral shedding, and viremia was determined. Virus neutralizing antibodies and isotype specific antibody responses against whole EHV-1 did not increase in either vaccination group in response to vaccination. However, glycoprotein gene vaccinated ponies showed gD and gC specific antibody responses. Vaccination did not affect EHV-1 specific lymphoproliferative or CTL responses. Following challenge infection with EHV-1, ponies in all three groups showed clinical signs of disease. EHV-1 specific CTLs, proliferative responses, and antibody responses increased significantly in all three groups following challenge infection. In summary, particle-mediated EHV-1 DNA vaccination induced limited immune responses and protection. Future vaccination strategies must focus on generating stronger CTL responses.
SourceAvailable from: Yoshiaki Taniyama[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Gene therapy has emerged as a novel therapy to promote angiogenesis in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) caused by peripheral artery disease. Researchers working in this area have focused on pro-angiogenic factors, such as VEGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Based on the elaborate studies and favorable results of basic research using naked plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding these growth factors, some clinical Phase I and Phase II trials have been performed. The results of these studies demonstrate the safety of these approaches and their potential for symptomatic improvement in CLI patients. However, the Phase III clinical trials have so far been limited to HGF gene therapy. Because one pitfall of the Phase III trials has been the limited transgene expression achieved using naked pDNA alone, the development of more efficient gene transfer systems, such as ultrasound microbubbles and the needleless injector, as well as the addition of other genes will make these novel therapies more effective and ease the symptoms of CLI. Areas covered: This study reviews the previously published basic research and clinical trials that have studied VEGF, FGF and HGF gene therapies for the treatment of CLI. Adjunctive therapies, such as the addition of prostacyclin synthase genes and the development of more efficient gene transfer techniques for pDNA, are also reviewed. Expert opinion: To date, clinical studies have demonstrated the safety of gene therapy in limb ischemia but the effectiveness of this treatment has not been determined. Larger clinical studies, as well as the development of more effective gene therapy, are needed to achieve and confirm beneficial effects.Expert opinion on biological therapy 04/2014; DOI:10.1517/14712598.2014.912272 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) remains one of the most common viral pathogens affecting horses worldwide presenting as a persistent infection which can establish latency in nerve ganglia (tri- geminal ganglion), lymphoid tissues of the respiratory tract and peripheral blood lymphocytes. EHV-1 infection induces both humoral and cellular immune responses in horses. Virus neutralis- ing antibody, particularly in the nasopharynx, is to kill free virus shed from infected epithelial cells. Hence this antibody has important functions in reducing virus shedding and spreading infec- tion to cohorts. Cellular immune responses, particularly those carried out by cytotoxic T lympho- cyte (CTL), have been shown to be effective in killing virus-infected cells in vitro. This review un- derlines the state of knowledge regarding immunity to EHV-1 and also its interaction with equine lymphocyte. Finally, the review also includes the importance of the viral immediate early (IE) protein in the pathogenesis of EHV-1. This information can be used as the basis for future re- search.Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine 12/2014; 4:294-307. DOI:10.4236/ojvm.2014.412036
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Equid herpesvirus (EHV) type 1 is a common pathogen of horses with worldwide distribution. Although severe tracheobronchitis has been described in some field outbreaks of EHV-1 respiratory disease, many EHV-1 infections occur asymptomatically or are accompanied only by signs of mild respiratory disease. However, EHV-1 infection can also result in outcomes other than respiratory disease such as abortion, neonatal death or neurological disease. This review provides an overview of the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for EHV-1 associated diseases, with an emphasis on neurological presentations of EHV-1 infection. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of EHV-1 associated diseases are described in an accompanying paper (Dunowska 2014).New Zealand veterinary journal 03/2014; DOI:10.1080/00480169.2014.899945 · 1.22 Impact Factor