Effect of steroid on mitochondrial oxidative stress enzymes, intestinal microflora, and bacterial translocation in rats subjected to temporary liver inflow occlusion.
ABSTRACT Protective effects of steroids against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury are well known, but there is little information about the influence of temporary inflow occlusion on intestinal barrier function or bacterial translocation. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects on liver, kidney, spleen, ileal mitochondrial stress enzymes, and bacterial translocation of methylprednisolone (MP) in rats undergoing temporary liver inflow occlusion. Twenty-seven pathogen-free Wistar albino rats were randomized into three groups: group A: I/R (n = 10); group B: I/R + MP (n = 10); and group C: sham (n = 7). Rats in groups A and B were subjected to 20 minutes of portal vein and hepatic artery occlusion with 3 mg/kg MP injected into group B animals intraperitoneally during the occlusion. Twenty-two hours later, all rats were sacrificed to measure mitochondrial oxidative stress enzymes in liver, kidney, spleen, and ileum. We evaluated intestinal bacterial counts, intestinal mucosal histopathology, bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), liver, spleen, and kidney. Decreased levels of malondialdehyde and increased levels of glutathione were observed in all examined tissues of group B compared to those of group A rats. Statistically significant increases in the intestinal counts of Klebsiella spp and Proteus spp and of bacterial translocation to liver, kidney, spleen, and MLN were measured in group B with respect to group A.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Intestinal ischemia can occur from mesenteric artery (MA) occlusion and portal vein (PV) occlusion. The degree and mechanisms of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in these conditions may differ. Metabolic changes are seen early in I/R. This study compares tissue histology, inflammation, and metabolic response during small bowel I/R due to superior MA or PV occlusion. Anesthetized male Wistar rats (250-300 g) underwent laparotomy followed by MA or PV occlusion for 40 min. After 120 min of reperfusion, small bowel tissue was collected. The expression of heat shock protein (HSP)-32 and HSP70 was evaluated to compare physiological stress responses between groups. Metabolic profiles were obtained using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)-based quantitative metabolomics. Histological injury of small bowel was graded from 0 (normal) to 4 (extensive ischemic damage). Protein expression of HSP32 and HSP70 increased when compared to sham but was not different in the MA I/R and PV I/R groups. Metabolic profiles demonstrated decreased glucose levels and highly elevated tissue lactate and amino acids and fatty acids following I/R, with more pronounced changes with PV occlusion. Lipid peroxidation was equally increased in both groups, while depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) was more severe with MA occlusion. The epithelial necrosis score was higher with MA (3.5 ± 0.6) than with PV occlusion (2.3 ± 0.8). Histological injury of the intestine is less pronounced following PV occlusion, most likely due to higher oxygen and substrate availability during I/R by PV occlusion. This conclusion is supported by a more pronounced metabolic synthetic response (increased glycolysis and fatty acid and amino acid accumulation) with PV occlusion, while oxidative stress was higher with MA occlusion. The inflammatory response showed little difference between the groups.Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2010; 45(11):1103-10. · 3.79 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Some species thrive in captivity but others exhibit extensive psychological and physiological deficits, which can be a challenge to animal husbandry and conservation as well as wild immunology. Here, we investigated whether captivity duration impacted the regulation of a key innate immune response, inflammation, of a common wild bird species, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Inflammation is one of the most commonly induced and fast-acting immune responses animals mount upon exposure to a parasite. However, attenuation and resolution of inflammatory responses are partly coordinated by glucocorticoid hormones, hormones that can be disregulated in captivity. Here, we tested whether captivity duration alters corticosterone regulation and hence the inflammatory response by comparing the following responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a Gram-negative bacteria component that induces inflammation) of birds caught wild and injected immediately versus those held for 2 or 4 weeks in standard conditions: (1) the magnitude of leukocyte immune gene expression [the cytokines, interleukin 1β and interleukin 6, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)], (2) the rate of clearance of endotoxin, and (3) the release of corticosterone (CORT) in response to endotoxin (LPS). We predicted that captivity duration would increase baseline CORT and thus suppress gene expression and endotoxin clearance rate. However, our predictions were not supported: TLR4 expression increased with time in captivity irrespective of LPS, and cytokine expression to LPS was stronger the longer birds remained captive. Baseline CORT was not affected by captivity duration, but CORT release post-LPS occurred only in wild birds. Lastly, sparrows held captive for 4 weeks maintained significantly higher levels of circulating endotoxin than other groups, perhaps due to leakage of microbes from the gut, but exogenous LPS did not increase circulating levels over the time scale samples were collected. Altogether, captivity appears to have induced a hyper-inflammatory state in house sparrows, perhaps due to disregulation of glucocorticoids, natural microflora or both.Journal of Experimental Biology 08/2011; 214(Pt 15):2579-85. · 3.24 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids are known to affect intestinal biota both directly or indirectly. The aim of the study reported here was to determine the short-term effects of different doses of dexamethasone on the numbers of various ileal bacteria populations. Rats were randomly put into groups, and each group was administered a single-dose injection of dexamethasone at either 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg body weight. At 48-h post-injection, the numbers of total aerobe, anaerobe, lactobacilli and coliform bacteria in the ileum were determined. The numbers of total aerobes and lactobacilli were higher in the groups receiving 5 and 10 mg/kg dexamethasone than in the control and other dose groups (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). The number of ileal anaerobic bacteria was higher in group receiving 5 mg/kg than in the other groups (P < 0.01). There were more coliform bacteria in the group receiving 0.1 mg/kg than in the groups receiving 0.5, 1 and 10 mg/kg (P < 0.05). In light of these results, the effects of dose-dependent increases in the number of different bacterial groups affecting gut functions have still to be determined in future studies.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 07/2008; 53(7):1842-5. · 2.26 Impact Factor