Determination of trunk muscle forces for flexion and extension by using a validated finite element model of the lumbar spine and measured in vivo data.
ABSTRACT Muscle forces stabilize the spine and have a great influence on spinal loads. But little is known about their magnitude. In a former in vitro experiment, a good agreement with intradiscal pressure and fixator loads measured in vivo could be achieved for standing and extension of the lumbar spine. However, for flexion the agreement between in vitro and in vivo measurements was insufficient. In order to improve the determination of trunk muscle forces, a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model of the lumbar spine with an internal fixation device was created and the same loads were applied as in a previous in vitro experiment. An extensive adaptation process of the model was performed for flexion and extension angles up to 20 degrees and -15 degrees, respectively. With this validated computer model intra-abdominal pressure, preload in the fixators, and a combination of hip- and lumbar flexion angle were varied until a good agreement between analytical and in vivo results was reached for both, intradiscal pressure and bending moments in the fixators. Finally, the fixators were removed and the muscle forces for the intact lumbar spine calculated. A good agreement with the in vivo results could only be achieved at a combination of hip- and lumbar flexion. For the intact spine, forces of 170, 100 and 600 N are predicted in the m. erector spinae for standing, 5 degrees extension and 30 degrees flexion, respectively. The force in the m. rectus abdominus for these body positions is less than 25 N. For more than 10 degrees extension the m. erector spinae is unloaded. The finite element method together with in vivo data allows the estimation of trunk muscle forces for different upper body positions in the sagittal plane. In our patients, flexion of the upper body was most likely a combination of hip- and lumbar spine bending.
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ABSTRACT: A model of the lumbar back muscles was constructed incorporating 49 fascicles of the lumbar erector spinae and multifidus. The attachment sites and sizes of fascicles were based on previous anatomic studies, and the fascicles were modeled on radiographs of nine normal volunteers in the upright position. Calculations revealed that the thoracic fibers of the lumbar erector spinae contribute 50% of the total extensor moment exerted on L4 and L5; multifidus contributes some 20%; and the remainder is exerted by the lumbar fibers of erector spinae. At upper lumbar levels, the thoracic fibers of the lumbar erector spinae contribute between 70% and 86% of the total extensor moment. In the upright posture, the lumbar back muscles exert a net posterior shear force on segments L1 to L4, but exert an anterior shear force on L5. Collectively, all the back muscles exert large compression forces on all segments. A force coefficient of 46 Ncm-2 was determined to apply for the back muscles. These results have a bearing on the appreciation of the effects on the back muscles of surgery and physiotherapy.Spine 09/1992; 17(8):897-913. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study describes the effects of varied torso muscle geometries commonly assumed in optimization-based muscle force prediction models. Specifically, the sensitivity of predicted muscle and spinal forces to assumed muscle lines-of-action (LOA) is systematically examined. The practical significance of varied muscle LOAs is addressed by determining the relative precision needed for individual muscle LOAs and assessing which muscles are more critical to accurate prediction of spinal forces. To perform this analysis a nonlinear optimization model was used to generate muscle force predictions during combined frontal and sagittal plane moment loadings with an assumed erect posture. The LOAs of the erector spinae, rectus abdominus, internal and external oblique, and latissimus dorsi were systematically varied in the frontal and sagittal planes over an anatomically feasible range. The results indicated that moderate changes in the assumed LOA could substantially alter the magnitudes of predicted muscle and spinal forces. The estimated activity level of a muscle, as well as the predicted active/silent state could be affected by the LOA of that muscle and others. The patterns of predicted muscle activity, with respect to load orientation, underwent only minor alterations with changing LOA. The relative activation of several muscles, however, was dependent on LOA, and frequently led to variations in predicted spinal compression (> 100 N change) and shear forces (> 50 N change). This dependence of estimated spinal forces on assumed muscle geometry was most pronounced for the obliques and minimal for the more vertically oriented muscles and when loads were sagittally symmetric. This study suggests that muscle LOAs are critical inputs when interpreting absolute muscle and spinal force values predicted by models of physical exertions.Journal of Biomechanics 04/1995; 28(4):401-9. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This work describes a dynamic model of the low back that incorporates extensive anatomical detail of the musculo-ligamentous-skeletal system to predict the load time histories of individual tissues. The dynamic reaction moment about L4/L5 was determined during lateral bending from a linked-segment model. This reaction moment was partitioned into restorative components provided by the disc, ligament strain, and active-muscle contraction using a second model of the spine that incorporated a detailed representation of the anatomy. Muscle contraction forces were estimated using both information from surface electromyograms, collected from 12 sites, and consideration of the modulating effects of muscle length, cross-sectional area and passive elasticity. This modelling technique is sensitive to the different ways in which individuals recruit their musculature to satisfy moment constraints. Time histories of muscle forces are provided. High muscle loads are consistent with the common clinical observation of muscle strain often produced by load handling. Furthermore, the coactivation measured in muscles on both sides of the trunk suggests that muscles are recruited to satisfy the lateral bending reaction torque in addition to performing other mechanical roles such as spine stabilization. If an estimate of the intervertebral joint compression is desired for assessment of lateral bends in industry, then a single equivalent lateral muscle with a moment arm of approximately 3.0-4.0 cm would conservatively capture the effects of muscle co-contraction quantified in this study.Journal of Biomechanics 05/1992; 25(4):395-414. · 2.72 Impact Factor