Multi-detector row CT of pancreatic islet cell tumors
ABSTRACT Pancreatic islet cell tumors (ICTs) are neuroendocrine neoplasms that produce and secrete hormones to a variable degree. These neoplasms can present a diagnostic challenge, both clinically and radiologically. ICTs can be classified as either syndromic or nonsyndromic on the basis of their clinical manifestations. Multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the diagnosis and staging of both syndromic and nonsyndromic ICTs. In general, syndromic ICTs are less than 3 cm in size. They are typically hyperenhancing and are usually best seen on CT scans obtained during the arterial phase. Nonsyndromic ICTs tend to be larger than syndromic ICTs at presentation and are more likely to be cystic or necrotic. It is important for the radiologist to be familiar with appropriate CT protocol for the evaluation of patients with suspected pancreatic ICT and to understand the variable CT appearances of these neoplasms.
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic vipoma is an extremely rare tumor accounting for less than 2% of endocrine pancreatic neoplasms with a reported incidence of 0.1-0.6 per million. While cross-sectional imaging findings are usually not specific, exact localization of the tumor by means of either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) is pivotal for surgical planning. However, cross-sectional imaging findings are usually not specific and further characterization of the tumor may only be achieved by somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy (SRS). We report the case of a 70 years old female with a two years history of watery diarrhoea who was found to have a solid, inhomogeneously enhancing lesion at the level of the pancreatic tail at Gadolinium-enhanced MR (Somatom Trio 3T, Siemens, Germany). The tumor had been prospectively overlooked at a contrast-enhanced multi-detector CT (Aquilion 64, Toshiba, Japan) performed after i.v. bolus injection of only 100 cc of iodinated non ionic contrast media because of a chronic renal failure (3.4 mg/mL) but it was subsequently confirmed by SRS. The patient first underwent a successful symptomatic treatment with somatostatin analogues and was then submitted to a distal pancreasectomy with splenectomy to remove a capsulated whitish tumor which turned out to be a well-differentiated vipoma at histological and immuno-histochemical analysis.
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ABSTRACT: In summary, ZES is a syndrome caused by gastrinoma, usually located within the gastrinoma triangle and associated with symptoms of peptic ulcer disease, GERD, and diarrhea. The diagnosis of ZES is made by measuring fasting levels of serum gastrin, BAO, and the secretin stimulation test. Because of the high association of ZES and MEN1, HPT must be excluded by obtaining a serum calcium and parathyroid hormone level. Treatment of ZES consists of medical control of symptoms with PPIs and evaluation for potentially curative surgical intervention. Noninvasive imaging studies including SRS, CT, and MRI should be performed initially to evaluate for metastases and identify resectable disease. Invasive imaging modalities such as EUS may be performed to further evaluate primary tumors. IOUS, palpation, and duodenotomy are used for intraoperative localization of gastrinomas. In patients with MEN1, surgical resection should be pursued only if there is an identifiable tumor larger than 2 cm and after surgery for the primary hyperparathyroidism (3 1/2-gland parathyroidectomy). All patients with resectable localized sporadic gastrinoma should undergo surgical exploration, even those with biochemical evidence but negative imaging studies. Tumor is most commonly found in the duodenum, and the cure rate is high. In patients with liver metastases, surgery should be considered if all identifiable tumor can be safely removed. A multidisciplinary approach including surgical and nonsurgical therapies should be taken in patients with advanced disease.Advances in Surgery 09/2013; 47:59-79. DOI:10.1016/j.yasu.2013.02.004
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ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become a widespread diagnostic solving tool for the detection and characterization of a large range of pancreatic cystic lesions. Benign and malignant cystic lesions of the pancreas including serous microcystic adenoma, mucinous cystic tumor, intraductal papillary mucinous tumor, solid pseudopapillary tumor, and also the less common lesions such as cystic endocrine tumors, cystic metastases, and lymphangiomas have suggestive MR imaging presentation that allows them to be differentiated from each other. Knowledge of MR imaging findings of cystic pancreatic lesions is critical to help suggest the diagnosis and chose the best therapeutic approach. The purpose of this review is to discuss and illustrate MR imaging features that are helpful for pancreatic cystic lesion detection and characterization and to provide an update in current MR imaging diagnostic features and management.Abdominal Imaging 11/2013; 39(1). DOI:10.1007/s00261-013-0048-y · 1.91 Impact Factor