Role of cortisol in menstrual recovery in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.
ABSTRACT Neuroendocrine abnormalities in anorexia nervosa (AN) include hypercortisolemia, hypogonadism, and hypoleptinemia, and neuroendocrine predictors of menstrual recovery are unclear. Preliminary data suggest that increases in fat mass may better predict menstrual recovery than leptin. High doses of cortisol decrease luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency, and cortisol predicts regional fat distribution. We hypothesized that an increase in fat mass and decrease in cortisol would predict menstrual recovery in adolescents with AN. Thirty-three AN girls 12-18 y old and 33 controls were studied prospectively for 1 y. Body composition [dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)], leptin, and urinary cortisol (UFC) were measured at 0, 6, and 12 mo. Serum cortisol was measured overnight (every 30 min) in 18 AN subjects and 17 controls. AN subjects had higher UFC/cr x m2 and cortisol area under curve (AUC), and lower leptin levels than controls. Leptin increased significantly with recovery. When menses-recovered AN subjects were compared with AN subjects not recovering menses and controls, menses-recovered AN subjects had higher baseline cortisol levels and greater increases in leptin than controls and greater increases in fat mass than AN subjects not recovering menses and controls (adjusted for multiple comparisons). In a logistic regression model, increasing fat mass, but not leptin, predicted menstrual recovery. Baseline cortisol level strongly predicted increases in the percentage of body fat. We demonstrate that 1) high baseline cortisol level predicts increases in body fat and 2) increases in body fat predict menses recovery in AN.
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ABSTRACT: : The Female Athlete Triad is a medical condition often observed in physically active girls and women, and involves 3 components: (1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, (2) menstrual dysfunction, and (3) low bone mineral density. Female athletes often present with 1 or more of the 3 Triad components, and an early intervention is essential to prevent its progression to serious endpoints that include clinical eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. This consensus statement represents a set of recommendations developed following the first (San Francisco, California) and second (Indianapolis, Indianna) International Symposia on the Female Athlete Triad. It is intended to provide clinical guidelines for physicians, athletic trainers, and other health care providers for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of the Female Athlete Triad and to provide clear recommendations for return to play. The 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad Expert Panel has proposed a risk stratification point system that takes into account magnitude of risk to assist the physician in decision-making regarding sport participation, clearance, and return to play. Guidelines are offered for clearance categories, management by a multidisciplinary team, and implementation of treatment contracts. This consensus paper has been endorsed by The Female Athlete Triad Coalition, an International Consortium of leading Triad researchers, physicians, and other health care professionals, the American College of Sports Medicine, and the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine.Clinical journal of sport medicine: official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine 03/2014; 24(2):96-119. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anorexia nervosa is prevalent in adolescents and young adults, and endocrine changes include hypothalamic amenorrhoea; a nutritionally acquired growth-hormone resistance leading to low concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1); relative hypercortisolaemia; decreases in leptin, insulin, amylin, and incretins; and increases in ghrelin, peptide YY, and adiponectin. These changes in turn have harmful effects on bone and might affect neurocognition, anxiety, depression, and the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Low bone-mineral density (BMD) is particularly concerning, because it is associated with changes in bone microarchitecture, strength, and clinical fractures. Recovery leads to improvements in many-but not all-hormonal changes, and deficits in bone accrual can persist. Oestrogen-replacement therapy, primarily via the transdermal route, increases BMD in adolescents, although catch-up is incomplete. In adults, oral oestrogen-combined with recombinant human IGF-1 in one study and bisphosphonates in another-increased BMD, but not to the normal range. More studies are necessary to investigate the optimum therapeutic approach in patients with, or recovering from, anorexia nervosa.The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology. 04/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Anorexia nervosa is among the most prevalent chronic medical conditions in young adults. It has acute as well as long-term consequences, some of which, such as low bone mineral density (BMD), are not completely reversible even after weight restoration. This review discusses our current understanding of endocrine consequences of anorexia nervosa. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by changes in multiple neuroendocrine axes including acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, growth hormone resistance with low insulin-like growth factor-1 (likely mediated by fibroblast growth factor-1), relative hypercortisolemia, alterations in adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin, and gut peptides including ghrelin, PYY and amylin. These changes in turn contribute to low BMD. Studies in anorexia nervosa have demonstrated abnormalities in bone microarchitecture and strength, and an association between increased marrow fat and decreased BMD. One study in adolescents reported an improvement in BMD following physiologic estrogen replacement, and another in adults demonstrated improved BMD following risedronate administration. Brown adipose tissue is reduced in anorexia nervosa, consistent with an adaptive response to the energy deficit state. Anorexia nervosa is associated with widespread physiologic adaptations to the underlying state of undernutrition. Hormonal changes in anorexia nervosa affect BMD adversely. Further investigation is underway to optimize therapeutic strategies for low BMD.Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity 11/2013; · 3.77 Impact Factor