Synergistic effects of depressed mood and obesity on long-term cardiovascular risks in 1510 obese men and women: results from the MONICA-KORA Augsburg Cohort Study 1984-1998.
ABSTRACT To examine the contribution of depressed mood in obese subjects on the prediction of a future coronary heart disease event (CHD).
A prospective population-based cohort study of three independent cross-sectional surveys with 6239 subjects, 45-74 years of age and free of diagnosed CHD, stroke and cancer. During a mean follow-up of 7 years, 179 CHD events occurred among men and 50 events among women.
A total of 737 (23%) male and 773 (26%) female subjects suffering from obesity (BMI >or=30 kg/m2).
Body weight determined by trained medical staff following a standardized protocol; standardized questionnaires to assess subsyndromal depressive mood and other psychosocial features.
The main effect of obesity to predict a future CHD (hazard ratio, HR=1.38, 95% CI 1.03-1.84; P=0.031) and the interaction term of obesity by depression (HR=1.73, 95% CI 0.98-3.05; P=0.060) were borderline significant, both covariate adjusted for multiple risk factors. Relative to the male subgroup with normal body weight and no depression, the male obese group with no depression was not at significantly increased risk for CHD events (HR=1.17, 95% CI 0.76-1.80; P=0.473) whereas CHD risk in males with both obesity and depressed mood was substantially increased (HR=2.32, 95% CI 1.45-3.72, P>0.0001). The findings for women were similar, however, not significant probably owing to lack of power associated with low event rates. Combining obesity and depressed mood resulted in a relative risk to suffer from a future CHD event of HR 1.84 (95% CI 0.79-4.26; P=0.158).
Depressed mood substantially amplifies the CHD risk of middle-aged obese, but otherwise apparently healthy men. The impact of depression on the obesity risk in women is less pronounced.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Karl-Heinz Ladwig, Mar 18, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Background: The rapid progress of psychosomatic research in cardiology and also the increasing impact of psychosocial issues in the clinical daily routine have prompted the Clinical Commission of the German Heart Society (DGK) to agree to an update of the first state of the art paper on this issue which was originally released in 2008. Methods: The circle of experts was increased, general aspects were implemented and the state of the art was updated. Particular emphasis was dedicated to coronary heart diseases (CHD), heart rhythm diseases and heart failure because to date the evidence-based clinical knowledge is most advanced in these particular areas. Differences between men and women and over the life span were considered in the recommendations as were influences of cognitive capability and the interactive and synergistic impact of classical somatic risk factors on the affective comorbidity in heart disease patients. Results: A IA recommendation (recommendation grade I and evidence grade A) was given for the need to consider psychosocial risk factors in the estimation of coronary risks as etiological and prognostic risk factors. Furthermore, for the recommendation to routinely integrate psychosocial patient management into the care of heart surgery patients because in these patients, comorbid affective disorders (e.g. depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder) are highly prevalent and often have a malignant prognosis. A IB recommendation was given for the treatment of psychosocial risk factors aiming to prevent the onset of CHD, particularly if the psychosocial risk factor is harmful in itself (e.g. depression) or constrains the treatment of the somatic risk factors. Patients with acute and chronic CHD should be offered anti-depressive medication if these patients suffer from medium to severe states of depression and in this case medication with selective reuptake inhibitors should be given. In the long-term course of treatment with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) a subjective health technology assessment is warranted. In particular, the likelihood of affective comorbidities and the onset of psychological crises should be carefully considered. Conclusions: The present state of the art paper presents an update of current empirical evidence in psychocardiology. The paper provides evidence-based recommendations for the integration of psychosocial factors into cardiological practice and highlights areas of high priority. The evidence for estimating the efficiency for psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions has increased substantially since the first release of the policy document but is, however, still weak. There remains an urgent need to establish curricula for physician competence in psychodiagnosis, communication and referral to ensure that current psychocardiac knowledge is translated into the daily routine.German medical science : GMS e-journal 01/2014; 12:Doc09. DOI:10.3205/000194
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ABSTRACT: This study examines differences in the rates of depression and anxiety symptoms in overweight vs. normal weight women before and after the menopause. In a population sample of 1 416 participants of the KORA-Survey F3 2004-2005 (age 35-74 years), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) und waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) were measured via physical examination. Depression and anxiety were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Compared with normal weight, obesity was associated with depression in premenopausal women. This held for elevated BMI-, WC- and WHtR-scores (OR=3.7, 4.2, and 2.8), underlining the relevance of both general and abdominal obesity. Menopausal status may be a moderator for the association of obesity and depression, which - given the interaction between these 2 risk factors - may be of preven-tive importance in regard to the development of cardiovascular outcomes such as coronary heart disease.PPmP - Psychotherapie · Psychosomatik · Medizinische Psychologie 08/2013; 64(3-4). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1349097 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Affective disorders and weight status have been consistently linked in childhood and adult research, and this comorbidity has synergistic effects leading to more severe health consequences. We map the co-development of these developmental processes in the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – 1997 (NLSY97) cohort ages 15 to 27 to inform the targeting of public health interventions. We estimate profiles of youth mental health and weight status through parallel process growth mixture modeling within a person-centered framework controlling for race/ethnicity, gender, and poverty status. Fit statistics indicate a 5-class parallel process model for the concurrent trajectories of BMI and mental health. The concurrent trajectories model reveals latent class trajectories of "stable normal weight, stable good mental health" (82.2%); "consistently obese, stable good mental health" (6.8%); "overweight becoming obese, declining mental health" (5.6%); "stable normal weight, improving mental health" (3.3%); and "morbid obesity, stable good mental health" (2.1%). The risk of developmental trajectories of poor mental health and BMI outcomes is greater for females, blacks, Hispanics, and individuals living below the poverty line. These results should help public health professionals to better target subpopulations approaching or already experiencing developmental pathways of risk for poor mental health and weight comorbidities. Multilevel investigation of lifestyle and contextual factors will foster further refinement of public health interventions.Social Science [?] Medicine 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.08.036 · 2.56 Impact Factor