The assembly of proteins in the peroxisomal membrane is a multistep process requiring their recognition in the cytosol, targeting to and insertion into the peroxisomal membrane, and stabilization within the lipid bilayer. The peroxin Pex19p has been proposed to be either the receptor that recognizes and targets newly synthesized peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMP) to the peroxisome or a chaperone required for stabilization of PMPs at the peroxisomal membrane. Differentiating between these two roles for Pex19p could be achieved by determining whether the peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS) and the region of Pex19p binding of a PMP are the same or different. We addressed the role for Pex19p in the assembly of two PMPs, Pex30p and Pex32p, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pex30p and Pex32p control peroxisome size and number but are dispensable for peroxisome formation. Systematic truncations from the carboxyl terminus, together with in-frame deletions of specific regions, have identified PTSs essential for targeting Pex30p and Pex32p to peroxisomes. Both Pex30p and Pex32p interact with Pex19p in regions that do not overlap with their PTSs. However, Pex19p is required for localizing Pex30p and Pex32p to peroxisomes, because mutations that disrupt the interaction of Pex19p with Pex30p and Pex32p lead to their mislocalization to a compartment other than peroxisomes. Mutants of Pex30p and Pex32p that localize to peroxisomes but produce cells exhibiting the peroxisomal phenotypes of cells lacking these proteins demonstrate that the regions in these proteins that control peroxisomal targeting and cell biological activity are separable. Together, our data show that the interaction of Pex19p with Pex30p and Pex32p is required for their roles in peroxisome biogenesis and are consistent with a chaperone role for Pex19p in stabilizing or maintaining membrane proteins in peroxisomes.
"Peroxisomes are unit membrane-bound organelles, containing peroxidase and catalase activities and contribute to several lipid metabolic pathways and redox homeostasis in eukaryotic cells [6,7]. So far 32 PEX genes have been identified and the encoded peroxins are indispensable for peroxisome biogenesis [8,9]. Peroxisome biogenesis can be induced by the presence of fatty acids, and degradation of the organelle in vacuoles (pexophagy) is in response to glucose [5,10,11]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pexophagy, the degradation of peroxisomes via selective autophagy, depends on Atg20/Snx42 function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Besides its role in selective autophagy, Atg20/Snx42 is also involved in an autophagy-independent endosomal retrieval trafficking, in cooperation with two other sorting nexins, Snx41 and Snx4. Recently, we reported that the sorting nexin MoSnx41, which showed high sequence similarity to yeast Snx41 and Snx42/Atg20 proteins, regulates the gamma-glutamyl cycle and GSH production and is essential for conidiation and pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae. Pexophagy was also found to be defective in Mosnx41Δ mutant. These findings indicate that MoSnx41 likely serves combined functions of Snx42/Atg20 and Snx41 in M. oryzae.. In this study, we performed complementation analyses and demonstrate that MoSnx41 alone serves the dual function of protein sorting (ScSnx41) and pexophagy (ScSnx42/Atg20). To study the potential biological function of pexophagy in fungal pathogenic life cycle, we created deletion mutants of potential pexophagy-specific genes, and characterized them in terms of pexophagy, conidiation and pathogenesis. We identified Pex14 as an essential protein for pexophagy in M. oryzae. Overall, our results show that pexophagy per se is not essential for asexual development or virulence in M. oryzae.
PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79128. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079128 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Requirement of members of the chaperone Hsp70/ Hsp40 family for peroxisomal matrix protein import was demonstrated (Walton et al., 1994; Legakis and Terlecky, 2001). Other molecular chaperones involved in peroxisomal protein import include the peroxin Pex19 (Jones et al., 2004; Vizeacoumar et al., 2006) or the ankyrin repeat protein Ankr2A (Shen et al., 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During a search for genes controlling conidial dormancy in Aspergillus fumigatus, two dehydrin-like genes, DprA and DprB, were identified. The deduced proteins had repeated stretches of 23 amino acids that contained a conserved dehydrin-like protein (DPR) motif. Disrupted DprAΔ mutants were hypersensitive to oxidative stress and to phagocytic killing, whereas DprBΔ mutants were impaired in osmotic and pH stress responses. However, no effect was observed on their pathogenicity in our experimental models of invasive aspergillosis. Molecular dissection of the signaling pathways acting upstream showed that expression of DprA was dependent on the stress-activated kinase SakA and the cyclic AMP-protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathways, which activate the bZIP transcription factor AtfA, while expression of DprB was dependent on the SakA mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and the zinc finger transcription factor PacC. Fluorescent protein fusions showed that both proteins were associated with peroxisomes and the cytosol. Accordingly, DprA and DprB were important for peroxisome function. Our findings reveal a novel family of stress-protective proteins in A. fumigatus and, potentially, in filamentous ascomycetes.
Molecular biology of the cell 06/2011; 22(11):1896-906. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E10-11-0914 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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