Opposite roles of neutrophils and macrophages in the pathogenesis of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury.
ABSTRACT Neutrophils and macrophages infiltrate after acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury starts to develop. However, their precise roles still remain elusive. In untreated and control IgG-treated wild-type (WT) mice, intraperitoneal APAP administration (750 mg/kg) caused liver injury including centrilobular hepatic necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages, with about 50% mortality within 48 h after the injection. APAP injection markedly augmented intrahepatic gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Moreover, neutrophils expressed iNOS, which is presumed to be an aggravating molecule for APAP-induced liver injury, while HO-1 was mainly expressed by macrophages. All anti-granulocyte antibody-treated neutropenic WT and most CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2)-deficient mice survived the same dose of APAP, with reduced neutrophil infiltration and iNOS expression, indicating the pathogenic roles of neutrophils in APAP-induced liver injury. However, APAP caused more exaggerated liver injury in CXCR2-deficient mice with reduced macrophage infiltration and HO-1 gene expression, compared with neutropenic WT mice. An HO-1 inhibitor, tin-protoporphyrin-IX, significantly increased APAP-induced mortality, implicating HO-1 as a protective molecule for APAP-induced liver injury. Thus, CXCR2 may regulate the infiltration of both iNOS-expressing neutrophils and HO-1-expressing macrophages, and the balance between these two molecules may determine the outcome of APAP-induced liver injury.
- SourceAvailable from: Gustavo B Menezes[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in many diseases such as autoimmune hepatitis and idiosyncratic drug reactions. However, its role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of IL-4 to the pathogenesis of APAP-induced liver injury. Balb/C (WT) and IL-4 knockout (IL-4(-/-)) mice were orally overdosed with APAP. After 24 h, survival percentage, biochemical and morphological markers of liver injury, and tissue inflammation were assessed. IL-4(-/-) mice were protected from APAP toxicity. Intravital confocal microscopy, tissue histology and serum ALT levels showed significantly less liver injury and inflammation than in the WT group, which may explain the increased survival rate of IL-4(-/-) mice. In addition, IL-4(-/-) mice had decreased production of tumor necrosis factor α, CXCL1 and interleukin-1β in the liver, but not in a remote site such as the lungs. Hepatic macrophage activation was markedly reduced in IL-4-deficient mice. In addition, glutathione depletion-a primary cause of APAP-mediated injury-was significantly attenuated in IL-4(-/-) mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate that IL-4(-/-) mice are protected from APAP-induced liver injury due to reduced depletion of glutathione, which prevented liver damage and tissue inflammation.Inflammation Research 10/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being involved in a secondary phase that may dramatically aggravate the initial damage. Hepatotoxicity, as well as hepatic metabolism, is controlled by a set of nuclear receptors (including PXR, CAR, HNF-4α, FXR, LXR, SHP, VDR and PPAR) and signaling pathways. When isolating liver cells, some pathways are activated, e.g., the RAS/MEK/ERK pathway, whereas others are silenced (e.g. HNF-4α), resulting in up- and downregulation of hundreds of genes. An understanding of these changes is crucial for a correct interpretation of in vitro data. The possibilities and limitations of the most useful liver in vitro systems are summarized, including three-dimensional culture techniques, co-cultures with non-parenchymal cells, hepatospheres, precision cut liver slices and the isolated perfused liver. Also discussed is how closely hepatoma, stem cell and iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like-cells resemble real hepatocytes. Finally, a summary is given of the state of the art of liver in vitro and mathematical modeling systems that are currently used in the pharmaceutical industry with an emphasis on drug metabolism, prediction of clearance, drug interaction, transporter studies and hepatotoxicity. One key message is that despite our enthusiasm for in vitro systems, we must never lose sight of the in vivo situation. Although hepatocytes have been isolated for decades, the hunt for relevant alternative systems has only just begun.Archives of Toxicology 08/2013; · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Following acetaminophen (APAP) overdose there is an inflammatory response triggered by release of cellular contents from necrotic hepatocytes into systemic circulation which initiates the recruitment of neutrophils into the liver. It has been demonstrated that neutrophils do not contribute to APAP-induced liver injury, but their role and the role of NADPH oxidase in injury resolution is controversial. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to APAP overdose and neutrophil activation status was determined during liver injury and liver regeneration. Additionally, human APAP overdose patients (ALT: >800U/L) had serial blood draws during the injury and recovery phases for determination of neutrophil activation. Neutrophils in the peripheral blood of mice showed increasing activation status (CD11b expression and ROS priming) during and after the peak of injury but returned to baseline levels prior to complete injury resolution. Hepatic sequestered neutrophils showed an increased and sustained CD11b expression, but no ROS priming was observed. Confirming that NADPH oxidase is not critical to injury resolution, gp91(phox)-/- mice following APAP overdose displayed no alteration in injury resolution. Peripheral blood from APAP overdose patients also showed increased neutrophil activation status after the peak of liver injury and remained elevated until discharge from the hospital. In mice and humans, markers of activation, like ROS priming, were increased and sustained well after active liver injury had subsided. The similar findings between surviving patients and mice indicate neutrophil activation may be a critical event for host defense or injury resolution following APAP overdose, but not a contributing factor to APAP-induced injury.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 01/2014; · 3.98 Impact Factor