Safety and efficacy of sedation with propofol for transoesophageal echocardiography in children in an outpatient setting
ABSTRACT Transoesophageal echocardiography has become a powerful tool in the diagnosis and management of children with congenital cardiac malformations. Unlike adults, children will not tolerate transoesophageal echocardiography under light sedation. This study was undertaken, therefore, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of deep sedation with propofol for transoesophageal echocardiography in children examined in an outpatient setting.
This is a retrospective study of patients undergoing transoesophageal echocardiography with propofol given in bolus aliquots to achieve a level of sedation adequate to insert the transoesophageal echocardiographic probe and maintain sedation throughout the procedure.
We included a total of 118 patients, 57% being male, with a mean age of 12.9 years. Adequate sedation was achieved using a mean propofol dose of 8.3 milligrams per kilogram, with the dose per kilogram decreasing concomitant with increasing weight of the patient. Patients less than two years of age were intubated for the procedure. There were no clinically significant changes in cardiac function or haemodynamics. Non-intubated patients received supplemental oxygen prior to, or just after, the onset of sedation, with transient hypoxaemia observed in one-fifth. Complications were rare, with minor problems occurring in 7.6%, and major ones in 4%.
Transoesophageal echocardiography can be performed on an outpatient basis in children with a wide spectrum of congenital cardiac malformations, and propofol is an ideal sedative agent in this setting. Although not common, preparations must be made for significant haemodynamic and respiratory complications. In our study, we intubated all the children under 2 years of age.
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ABSTRACT: Interventional cardiac catheterization in children and adolescents is traditionally performed with the patient under general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation. However, percutaneous closure of atrial septum defect (ASD) without general anaesthesia is currently being attempted in a growing number of children. The study objective was to evaluate the success and complication rate of percutaneous ASD closure in spontaneously breathing children under deep sedation. Retrospective single centre cohort study of consecutive children undergoing percutaneous ASD closure at a tertiary care pediatric cardiology centre. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and percutaneous ASD closure were performed with the patient under deep sedation with intravenous bolus of midazolam and ketamine for induction and propofol continuous infusion for maintenance of sedation in spontaneously breathing children. One hundred and ninety-seven patients (median age 6.1 years [minimum 0.5; maximum 18.8]) underwent TEE and ASD balloon sizing. Percutaneous ASD closure was attempted in 174 patients (88 %), and device implantation was performed successfully in 92 %. To achieve sufficient deep sedation, patients received a median ketamine dose of 2.7 mg/kg (0.3; 7) followed by a median propofol continuous infusion rate of 5 mg/kg/h (1.1; 10.7). There were no major cardiorespiratory complications associated with deep sedation, and only two patients (1 %) required endotracheal intubation due to bronchial obstruction immediately after induction of sedation. Seventeen patients (8 %) had minor respiratory complications and required frequent oral suctioning or temporary bag-mask ventilation. TEE and percutaneous ASD closure can be performed safely and successfully under deep sedation in spontaneously breathing children of all ages.Pediatric Cardiology 07/2013; 35(2). DOI:10.1007/s00246-013-0762-9 · 1.31 Impact Factor