Hippocampal vulnerability following traumatic brain injury: a potential role for neurotrophin-4/5 in pyramidal cell neuroprotection.
ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes selective hippocampal cell death, which is believed to be associated with cognitive impairment observed both in clinical and experimental settings. Although neurotrophin administration has been tested as a strategy to prevent cell death following TBI, the potential neuroprotective role of neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) in TBI remains unknown. We hypothesized that NT-4/5 would offer neuroprotection for selectively vulnerable hippocampal neurons following TBI. Measurements of NT-4/5 in rats subjected to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) TBI revealed two-threefold increases in the injured cortex and hippocampus in the acute period (1-3 days) following brain injury. Subsequently, the response of NT-4/5 knockout (NT-4/5(-/-)) mice to controlled-cortical impact TBI was investigated. NT-4/5(-/-) mice were more susceptible to selective pyramidal cell loss in Ahmon's corn (CA) subfields of the hippocampus following TBI, and showed impaired motor recovery when compared with their brain-injured wild-type controls (NT-4/5(wt)). Additionally, we show that acute, prolonged administration of recombinant NT-4/5 (5 microg/kg/day) prevented up to 50% of the hippocampal CA pyramidal cell death following LFP TBI in rats. These results suggest that post-traumatic increases in endogenous NT-4/5 may be part of an adaptive neuroprotective response in the injured brain, and that administration of this neurotrophic factor may be useful as a therapeutic strategy following TBI.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) adjuvant therapy on the neurotrophin-4/5(NT-4/5) expression of hippocampus and neocortex in young rats with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. Three-week-old rat models with S. pneumoniae meningitis were established; there were 32 rats, receiving antibiotics and antibiotics with DEX treatments, respectively. The NT-4/5 expression of hippocampus and neocortex were detected through immunohistochemical techniques. The NT-4/5 expression in the antibiotics with DEX treatment group was significantly higher than that of the simple antibiotics treatment (P<0.05). The immunohistochemical staining-positive particles were undetected in the negative control. S. pneumonia meningitis treated with DEX adjuvant therapy can regulate NT-4/5 expression to promote nerve growth, thus, reducing the damage to brain parenchyma.
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ABSTRACT: The neuropeptide VGF (non-acronymic), which has antidepressant-like effects, enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis as well as synaptic activity and plasticity in the hippocampus, however the interaction between these processes and the mechanism underlying this regulation remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that VGF-derived peptide TLQP-62 specifically enhances the generation of early progenitor cells in nestin-GFP mice. Specifically, TLQP-62 significantly increases the number of Type 2a neural progenitor cells (NPCs) while reducing the number of more differentiated Type 3 cells. The effect of TLQP-62 on proliferation rather than differentiation was confirmed using NPCs in vitro; TLQP-62 but not scrambled peptide PEHN-62 increases proliferation in a cell line as well as in primary progenitors from adult hippocampus. Moreover, TLQP-62 but not scrambled peptide increases Cyclin D mRNA expression. The proliferation of NPCs induced by TLQP-62 requires synaptic activity, in particular through NMDA and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The activation of glutamate receptors by TLQP-62 activation induces phosphorylation of CaMKII through NMDA receptors and protein kinase D through metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Furthermore, pharmacological antagonists to CaMKII and PKD inhibit TLQP-62-induced proliferation of NPCs indicating that these signaling molecules downstream of glutamate receptors are essential for the actions of TLQP-62 on neurogenesis. We also show that TLQP-62 gradually activates Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)-receptor TrkB in vitro and that Trk signaling is required for TLQP-62-induced proliferation of NPCs. Understanding the precise molecular mechanism of how TLQP-62 influences neurogenesis may reveal mechanisms by which VGF-derived peptides act as antidepressant-like agents.Stem Cell Research 03/2014; 12(3):762-777. DOI:10.1016/j.scr.2014.03.005 · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Due to recent involvement in military conflicts, and an increase in the use of explosives, there has been an escalation in the incidence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) among US military personnel. Having a better understanding of the cellular and molecular cascade of events in bTBI is prerequisite for the development of an effective therapy that currently is unavailable. The present study utilized organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs) exposed to blast overpressures of 150 kPa (low) and 280 kPa (high) as an in vitro bTBI model. Using this model, we further characterized the cellular effects of the blast injury. Blast-evoked cell death was visualized by a propidium iodide (PI) uptake assay as early as 2 h post-injury. Quantification of PI staining in the cornu Ammonis 1 and 3 (CA1 and CA3) and the dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus at 2, 24, 48, and 72 h following blast exposure revealed significant time dependent effects. OHCs exposed to 150 kPa demonstrated a slow increase in cell death plateauing between 24 and 48 h, while OHCs from the high-blast group exhibited a rapid increase in cell death already at 2 h, peaking at ~24 h post-injury. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase release into the culture medium also revealed a significant increase in cell lysis in both low- and high-blast groups compared to sham controls. OHCs were fixed at 72 h post-injury and immunostained for markers against neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. Labeling OHCs with PI, neuronal, and glial markers revealed that the blast-evoked extensive neuronal death and to a lesser extent loss of glial cells. Furthermore, our data demonstrated activation of astrocytes and microglial cells in low- and high-blasted OHCs, which reached a statistically significant difference in the high-blast group. These data confirmed that our in vitro bTBI model is a useful tool for studying cellular and molecular changes after blast exposure.Frontiers in Neurology 02/2015; 6:20. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2015.00020