Laparoscopic Lysis of Adhesions

Bariatric Institute, Section of Minimally Invasive Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Florida, 2950 Cleveland Clinic Blvd., Weston, Florida 33331, USA.
World Journal of Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.64). 05/2006; 30(4):535-40. DOI: 10.1007/s00268-005-7778-0
Source: PubMed


Intra-abdominal adhesions constitute between 49% and 74% of the causes of small bowel obstruction. Traditionally, laparotomy and open adhesiolysis have been the treatment for patients who have failed conservative measures or when clinical and physiologic derangements suggest toxemia and/or ischemia. With the increased popularity of laparoscopy, recent promising reports indicate the feasibility and potential superiority of the minimally invasive approach to the adhesion-encased abdomen.
The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of laparoscopic adhesiolysis and to provide technical tips that help in the success of this technique.
The most important predictive factor of adhesion formation is a history of previous abdominal surgery ranging from 67%-93% in the literature. Conversely, 31% of scars from previous surgery have been free of adhesions, whereas up to 10% of patients without any prior surgical scars will have spontaneous adhesions of the bowel or omentum. Most intestinal obstructions follow open lower abdominopelvic surgeries such as colectomy, appendectomy, and hysterectomy. The most common complications associated with adhesions are small bowel obstruction (SBO) and chronic pain syndrome. The treatment of uncomplicated SBO is generally conservative, especially with incomplete obstruction and the absence of systemic toxemia, ischemia, or strangulation. When conservative treatment fails, surgical options include conventional open or minimally invasive approaches; the latter have become increasing more popular for lysis of adhesions and the treatment of SBO. Generally, 63% of the length of a laparotomy incision is involved in adhesion formation to the abdominal wall. Furthermore, the incidence of ventral hernia after a laparotomy ranges between 11% and 20% versus the 0.02%-2.4% incidence of port site herniation. Additional benefits of the minimally invasive approaches include a decreased incidence of wound infection and postoperative pneumonia and a more rapid return of bowel function resulting in a shorter hospital stay. In long-term follow up, the success rate of laparoscopic lysis of adhesions remains between 46% and 87%. Operative times for laparoscopy range from 58 to 108 minutes; conversion rates range from 6.7% to 43%; and the incidence of intraoperative enterotomy ranges from 3% to 17.6%. The length of hospitalization is 4-6 days in most series.
Laparoscopic lysis of adhesions seems to be safe in the hands of well-trained laparoscopic surgeons. This technique should be mastered by the advanced laparoscopic surgeon not only for its usefulness in the pathologies discussed here but also for adhesions commonly encountered during other laparoscopic procedures.

Download full-text


Available from: Samuel Szomstein, Jul 28, 2014
16 Reads
  • Source
    • "Laparoscopic adhesiolysis for small bowel obstruction has a number of potential advantages: (1) less postoperative pain, (2) faster return of intestinal function, (3) shorter hospital stay, (4) reduced recovery time, allowing an earlier return to full activity, (5) decreased wound complications, and (6) decreased postoperative adhesion formation [52,53]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In 2013 Guidelines on diagnosis and management of ASBO have been revised and updated by the WSES Working Group on ASBO to develop current evidence-based algorithms and focus indications and safety of conservative treatment, timing of surgery and indications for laparoscopy. Recommendations In absence of signs of strangulation and history of persistent vomiting or combined CT-scan signs (free fluid, mesenteric edema, small-bowel feces sign, devascularization) patients with partial ASBO can be managed safely with NOM and tube decompression should be attempted. These patients are good candidates for Water-Soluble-Contrast-Medium (WSCM) with both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The radiologic appearance of WSCM in the colon within 24 hours from administration predicts resolution. WSCM maybe administered either orally or via NGT both immediately at admission or after failed conservative treatment for 48 hours. The use of WSCM is safe and reduces need for surgery, time to resolution and hospital stay. NOM, in absence of signs of strangulation or peritonitis, can be prolonged up to 72 hours. After 72 hours of NOM without resolution, surgery is recommended. Patients treated non-operatively have shorter hospital stay, but higher recurrence rate and shorter time to re-admission, although the risk of new surgically treated episodes of ASBO is unchanged. Risk factors for recurrences are age <40 years and matted adhesions. WSCM does not decrease recurrence rates or recurrences needing surgery. Open surgery is often used for strangulating ASBO as well as after failed conservative management. In selected patients and with appropriate skills, laparoscopic approach is advisable using open access technique. Access in left upper quadrant or left flank is the safest and only completely obstructing adhesions should be identified and lysed with cold scissors. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis should be attempted preferably if first episode of SBO and/or anticipated single band. A low threshold for open conversion should be maintained. Peritoneal adhesions should be prevented. Hyaluronic acid-carboxycellulose membrane and icodextrin decrease incidence of adhesions. Icodextrin may reduce the risk of re-obstruction. HA cannot reduce need of surgery. Adhesions quantification and scoring maybe useful for achieving standardized assessment of adhesions severity and for further research in diagnosis and treatment of ASBO.
    World Journal of Emergency Surgery 10/2013; 8(1):42. DOI:10.1186/1749-7922-8-42 · 1.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Regardless of an open or a laparoscopic approach, the surgical treatment of adhesions induces the reformation as well as new formation of adhesions [7, 8]. Hence, adhesion prevention is of key importance. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Postoperative adhesions are the most frequent complication of abdominal surgery, leading to high morbidity, mortality, and costs. However, the problem seems to be neglected by surgeons for largely unknown reasons. A survey assessing knowledge and personal opinion about the extent and impact of adhesions was sent to all Dutch surgeons and surgical trainees. The informed-consent process and application of antiadhesive agents were questioned in addition. The response rate was 34.4%. Two thirds of all respondents (67.7%) agreed that adhesions exert a clinically relevant, negative effect. A negative perception of adhesions correlated with a positive attitude regarding adhesion prevention (ρ = 0.182, p < 0.001). However, underestimation of the extent and impact of adhesions resulted in low knowledge scores (mean test score 37.6%). Lower scores correlated with more uncertainty about indications for antiadhesive agents which, in turn, correlated with never having used any of these agents (ρ = 0.140, p = 0.002; ρ = 0.095, p = 0.035; respectively). Four in 10 respondents (40.9%) indicated that they never inform patients on adhesions and only 9.8% informed patients routinely. A majority of surgeons (55.9%) used antiadhesive agents in the past, but only a minority (13.4%) did in the previous year. Of trainees, 82.1% foresaw an increase in the use of antiadhesive agents compared to 64.5% of surgeons (p < 0.001). The magnitude of the problem of postoperative adhesions is underestimated and informed consent is provided inadequately by Dutch surgeons. Exerting adhesion prevention is related to the perception of and knowledge about adhesions.
    World Journal of Surgery 12/2010; 34(12):2805-12. DOI:10.1007/s00268-010-0778-8 · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Other absolute contraindications are severe comorbidities, as cardiovascular, respiratory and hemostatic disease [3,18,58], and the hemodynamic instability [58], because they do not allow a safe pneumoperitoneum and need a brief surgical time. Obviously the experience of the surgeon [46,49,58] also influences the outcome of the laparoscopic adhesiolysis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adherential pathology is the most common cause of small bowel obstruction. Laparoscopy in small bowel obstruction does not have a clear role yet; surely it doesn't always represent only a therapeutic act, but it is always a diagnostic act, which doesn't interfere with abdominal wall integrity. We performed a review without any language restrictions considering international literature indexed from 1980 to 2007 in Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library. We analyzed the reference lists of the key manuscripts. We also added a review based on international non-indexed sources. The feasibility of diagnostic laparoscopy is high (60-100%), while that of therapeutic laparoscopy is low (40-88%). The frequency of laparotomic conversions is variable ranging from 0 to 52%, depending on patient selection and surgical skill. The first cause of laparotomic conversion is a difficult exposition and treatment of band adhesions. The incidence of laparotomic conversions is major in patients with anterior peritoneal band adhesions. Other main causes for laparotomic conversion are the presence of bowel necrosis and accidental enterotomies. The predictive factors for successful laparoscopic adhesiolysis are: number of previous laparotomies </= 2, non-median previous laparotomy, appendectomy as previous surgical treatment causing adherences, unique band adhesion as phatogenetic mechanism of small bowel obstruction, early laparoscopic management within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms, no signs of peritonitis on physical examination, experience of the surgeon. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis in small bowel obstruction is feasible but can be convenient only if performed by skilled surgeons in selected patients. The laparoscopic adhesiolysis for small bowel obstruction is satisfactorily carried out when early indicated in patients with a low number of laparotomies resulting in a short hospital stay and a lower postoperative morbidity. Although a higher small bowel obstruction recurrence remains the major postoperative risk of the laparoscopic management of these patients.
    World Journal of Emergency Surgery 02/2009; 4(1):3. DOI:10.1186/1749-7922-4-3 · 1.47 Impact Factor
Show more