Myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in elderly patients.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the outcome following myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) among patients older than 50 yr of age. A total of 215 patients with a median age of 57 yr underwent allogeneic hematopoietic SCT for early (41%) or advanced (59%) hematologic malignancies. After a median follow-up of 36 months a 10-yr survival estimate of 56 +/- 6% could be assessed for patients in early disease stages while patients with advanced diseases showed a significantly decreased survival probability of 31 +/- 5% (p < 0.0002). Transplant related mortality (TRM) at day 100 and 365 post-transplant was 13% and 30% for early but increased to 21% and 49% for advanced disease stages. As major determinants of TRM advanced disease stage (p < 0.0001) and occurrence of grades II-IV graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) (p < 0.0001) were identified. These results show that hematopoietic SCT following myeloablative conditioning is also applicable to elderly patients whereas disease stage and high-grade GVHD represent the essential prognostic factors for outcome.
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ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-HCT) is the only curative therapy for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Numerous myeloablative (MA), nonmyeloablative SCT (NST) and reduced conditioning transplant (RIC) studies have included MDS patients. Twenty-four MA HCT studies published from 2000 and 2008 reported OS and disease-free survival (DFS) ranging from 25 and 16% at 2 years to 52 and 50% at 4 years. In these publications, the incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD was 18-100%, chronic GVHD 13-88%, relapse risk 24% at 1 year to 54.5% at 4 years and TRM 19% at day 100 to 61% at 5 years. From 2003 to 2008, 30 publications combining RIC and NST reported OS and DFS from 22 and 20% at 2 years to 79 and 79% at 4 years. Incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD ranged from 9 to 63%, chronic GVHD 18 to 80%, relapse risk 6 to 61% and TRM 0% at day 100 to 34% at 5 years. The wide range in the published results leaves many unanswered questions. Although no ideal transplant conditioning has emerged, many of the MA and RIC studies used BU-based regimens and used a recipient age cutoff of 50-55 years for MA HCT. Similarly, there is no agreement on the use of induction or hypomethylating therapy before HCT, but azacitidine and decitabine are gaining increasing attention as a bridge to HCT. Until recently, the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) dictated the use and timing of HCT. The WHO classification and WHO Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) may be better suited in predicting the outcomes and should probably be incorporated in transplant algorithms. Most published MDS transplant series combine matched related donors (MRD) and matched unrelated donors (MUD). Umbilical cord blood (UCB) grafts will likely broaden the population of MDS patients eligible for allografting, but outcome data for MDS are scant. At this time, it is reasonable to consider the availability of an MRD or MUD as separate from an UCB graft in the decision of transplantation for MDS. The development of RIC, improvements in supportive therapy and alternative donor selection will provide better OS for MDS patients undergoing transplantation. Simultaneously, better understanding and medical therapy of MDS are leading us to re-examine patient selection and the timing of HCT. The results of HCT for MDS continue to improve together with the outlook of patients afflicted with myelodysplasia.Bone marrow transplantation 04/2009; 43(8):597-609. · 3.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prognosis of elderly patients with AML after chemotherapy is poor. Allo-SCT is feasible in these patients, but data on prognostic factors and outcome are limited. We analyzed all 102 AML patients ≥55 years, who underwent allo-SCT at our institution from 1997 to 2008. OS and relapse-free survival (RFS) rates at 3 years are 39 and 37%, respectively. Multivariate analysis for OS revealed age ≥60 years and active (refractory or untreated before allo-SCT) or advanced (>CR1) disease as adverse prognostic factors. Patients transplanted in CR1 had a 3-year OS of 67 vs 27% for patients with active/advanced disease. Multivariate analysis for RFS revealed active/advanced disease as the only adverse factor. Patients transplanted in CR1 had a 3-year RFS of 70 vs 22% for patients with active/advanced disease. In all, 17% of patients suffered from acute GVHD ≥grade II. The risk for severe acute GVHD was increased after allo-SCT from mismatched donors. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 23% at 1 year. The only risk factor for NRM was active/advanced disease. In conclusion, allo-SCT from related or unrelated donors yields very good results in elderly AML patients transplanted in CR1. Disease status at transplantation is the most important prognostic factor for transplantation success.Bone marrow transplantation 04/2011; 46(4):545-51. · 3.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Decitabine (Dacogen(®), Eisai Inc., NJ, USA) is a nucleoside analogue DNA methyltransferase inhibitor first synthesized and documented to have antileukemic efficacy over 40 years ago. Over the years, the dosing of decitabine has been refined, such that for acute myeloid leukemia, a 5-day schedule of 20 mg/m(2) is now commonly utilized. Owing to its relatively modest nonhematologic toxicity when administered in this manner, single agent decitabine has shown the greatest promise in antileukemic efficacy for the management of older individuals and others who are not candidates for more intensive therapy. Whether or not single-agent decitabine is more safe and effective than existing therapies for older individuals, which markers best predict for response, and what drugs combine most effectively with decitabine, are all areas of active investigation at this time.Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 03/2012; 12(3):299-305. · 2.07 Impact Factor