Chemical enhancers for the absorption of substances through the skin: Laurocapram and its derivatives.
ABSTRACT Absorption enhancers are substances used for temporarily increasing a membrane's permeability (e.g., the skin and mucosa), either by interacting with its components (lipids or proteins) or by increasing the membrane/vehicle partition coefficient. This article presents the results of biophysical and permeability studies performed with Laurocapram and its analogues. As shown, Laurocapram and its analogues present different enhancing efficacies, for most of both hydrophilic and lipophilic substances. The enhancing effect of Laurocapram (Azone) is attributed to different mechanisms, such as insertion of its dodecyl group into the intercellular lipidic bilayer, increase of the motion of the alkylic chains of lipids, and fluidization of the hydrophobic regions of the lamellate structure. Toxicological studies reveal a low toxicity for Laurocapram, and for some derivatives, a relationship exists between toxicity and the number of carbons in the alkylic chain. Very important, when applied to human skin, Laurocapram shows a minimal absorption, being quickly eliminated from circulation. However, although Laurocapram and its derivatives have been shown to provide enhancement, they have not been widely accepted because of their suspected pharmacological activity or questions about their safety.
Article: Topical drug delivery by a polymeric nanosphere gel: Formulation optimization and in vitro and in vivo skin distribution studies.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tyrosine-derived nanospheres have demonstrated potential as effective carriers for the topical delivery of lipophilic molecules. In this investigation, a gel formulation containing nanospheres was developed for effective skin application and enhanced permeation. Carbopol and HPMC hydrophilic gels were evaluated for dispersion of these nanospheres. Sparingly water soluble diclofenac sodium (DS) and lipophilic Nile Red were used as model compounds. DS was used to determine the optimum polymer type, viscosity and release properties of the gel while fluorescent Nile Red was used in in vitro and in vivo skin distribution studies. In addition, the effect of a penetration enhancer, Azone, on the skin delivery was investigated. Dispersion of Nile Red-loaded nanospheres in 1% w/v HPMC gel produced a uniform and stable dispersion with suitable rheological properties for topical application, without any short-term cellular toxicity or tissue irritation. In vitro permeation studies using human cadaver skin revealed that the deposition of Nile Red via the nanosphere gel in the upper and lower dermis was 1.4 and 1.8 fold higher, respectively, than the amount of Nile Red deposited via an aqueous nanosphere formulation. In vivo, the HPMC gel containing Nile Red-loaded nanospheres significantly enhanced (1.4 fold) the permeation of Nile Red to the porcine stratum corneum/epidermis compared to the aqueous Nile Red-loaded nanospheres. An additional increase (1.4 fold) of Nile Red deposition in porcine stratum corneum/epidermis was achieved by incorporation of Azone (0.2M) into the nanosphere gel formulation. Therefore, tyrosine-derived nanospheres dispersed in gels offer promise for the topical delivery of lipophilic drugs and personal care agents to skin for treatment of cancers, psoriasis, eczema, and microbial infections.Journal of Controlled Release 10/2010; 149(2):159-67. · 5.73 Impact Factor
Article: In vitro characterization of chitosan gels for buccal delivery of celecoxib: influence of a penetration enhancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Celecoxib (Cx) shows high efficacy in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis as a result of its high specificity for COX-2, without gastrolesivity or interference with platelet function at therapeutic concentrations. Besides of anti-inflammatory effects, Cx also has a potential role for oral cancer chemoprevention. For these conditions, oral administration in long-term treatment is a concern due to its systemic side effects. However, local application at the site of injury (e.g., buccal inflammation conditions or chemoprevention of oral cancer) is a promising way to reduce its toxicity. In this study, the in vitro characterization of mucoadhesive chitosan (CHT) gels associated to Azone® was assessed to explore the potential buccal mucosal administration of Cx in this tissue. Rheological properties of gels were analyzed by a rheometer with cone-plate geometry. In vitro Cx release and permeability studies used artificial membranes and pig cheek mucosa, respectively. Mucoadhesion were measured with a universal test machine. CHT gels (3.0%) containing 2.0% or 3.0% Az showed more appropriate characteristics compared to the others: pH values, rheology, higher amount of Cx retained in the mucosa, and minimal permeation through mucosa, besides the highest mucoadhesion values, ideal for buccal application. Moreover, the flux (J) and amounts of drug released decreased with increased CHT and Az concentrations. CHT gels (3.0%) associated with 2.0% or 3.0% Az may be considered potential delivery systems for buccal administration of Cx.AAPS PharmSciTech 12/2011; 13(1):101-11. · 1.43 Impact Factor