"The introduction of high-throughput analyses of PLs, recently performed on nonpathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is accelerating our ability to analyze yeast lipid metabolism and signaling, and the factors that regulate them (Ejsing et al., 2009; Guan and Wenk, 2006). Lipidomics is a branch of metabolomics that provides a systematic approach to decoding lipid-based information in biosystems (Bleijerveld et al., 2006; Roberts et al., 2008; Watson, 2006; Wenk, 2005). In the present study, eight different Candida species, C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, C. utilis, and C. kefyr, were characterized using profiling based on electrospray ionization (ESI) triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By employing electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), the phospholipidomes of eight hemiascomycetous human pathogenic Candida species have been characterized. Over 200 phospholipid molecular species were identified and quantified. There were no large differences among Candida species in phosphoglyceride class composition; however, differences in phosphoglycerides components (i.e., fatty acyl chains) were identified. In contrast, differences in sphingolipid class composition as well as in molecular species were quite evident. The phospholipid compositions of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. kefyr, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, and C. utilis could be further discriminated by principal component analysis. Notwithstanding that a single strain of each species was analyzed, our data do point to a typical molecular species imprint of Candida strains.
Omics: a journal of integrative biology 12/2010; 14(6):665-77. DOI:10.1089/omi.2010.0041 · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter describes the molecular and cellular components involved in the specific immune response. It starts with explaining the evolutionary aspects, especially the “common roots” of many structural elements that underlay both the nervous system and the immune system. After describing the immunoglobulin superfamily members and their duplication in the evolution, the work addresses the issue of the milieu of the immune response and the nature of the immunogens, especially the wide-ranging spectrum of epitopes. The work portrays the primary antibody response, involvement of B and T cells, antigen processing, antigen presentation, activation of T cells, formation of B cell–T cell conjugates, and the clonal expansion of B cells. Details of the antibody response (including the repertoires of antibody) are given, and special attention is paid to isotype switch and affinity maturation. Thereupon the secondary immune response and formation of memory is explained, and also the processes of induction and maintenance of tolerance, anergy, and apoptosis are given. Besides the T-dependent responses, also responses not requiring T cell help, specific cytotoxic responses as well as involvement of regulatory T cells (Tregs) are portrayed. This chapter does not address the innate immune response (nor the field of Toll-like receptor family) that is left to another chapter(s) of this volume.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.