Article

Phosphorylcholine Coating of Bypass Systems Used for Young Infants Does Not Attenuate the Inflammatory Response

Leiden University, Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
The Annals of thoracic surgery (Impact Factor: 3.65). 05/2006; 81(4):1455-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2005.11.058
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Contact of blood with the artificial surfaces of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) system is considered to be a main cause of complement activation. Improving the biocompatibility of the system by reduction of contact activation of blood elements and thereby producing less inflammatory response is evidently desired, especially for neonates and infants who are more susceptible to the deleterious effects of CPB. A phosphorylcholine coating, Phisio, is designed to mimic the natural interfaces of blood. The aim of this study is to compare the influence of a phosphorylcholine-coated CPB system versus an uncoated CPB system on complement activation and clinical outcomes.
In this prospective, randomized, blind, one-center study, 28 neonates and infants with a bodyweight between 3 and 6 kg who were undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass were divided in two groups, the phosphorylcholine group and the control group. Thirteen patients were assigned to the phosphorylcholine group and 15 patients to the control group. Patients with Down syndrome, prematurity, cyanosis, or reoperation were excluded. Complement factor C3b/c, human neutrophil elastase (HNE), interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein were measured before, during, and after CPB. Duration of intensive care stay, ventilation time, highest body temperature, and inotropic medication were the clinical variables.
No significant differences were found between the groups for complement factor C3b/c, HNE, interleukin-6, or C-reactive protein during and after CPB. No clinical differences were observed between the groups.
Phosphorylcholine coating does not attenuate the complement activation during CPB in neonates and infants.

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    ABSTRACT: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in children is associated with a capillary leak due to inflammatory response, which results in an increase in total body water. This study was designed to reveal that our miniaturized CPB system reduced the peri-operative systemic inflammatory response in small infants. In our institution, the priming volume has been reduced from 500 ml to 140 ml currently. Eighty consecutive patients weighing <5 kg were retrospectively reviewed. The postoperative peak C-reactive protein (CRP), body weight gain (%BWG), and the duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation (MVT) data were collected for each patient. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses were used to investigate which of the factors most affected the peri-operative inflammatory responses. A priming volume (coefficient: 0.060, P=0.01), most affected the postoperative peak CRP (mg/dl). A combination of priming volume (coefficient: 0.015, P=0.006), and bypass time (coefficient: 0.013, P=0.028), most affected %BWG (%). A combination of priming volume (coefficient: 0.05, P=0.001) and age (coefficient: -0.02, P=0.001) most affected the MVT (days). The miniaturized circuits reduced the peri-operative inflammatory response, resulting in reduced postoperative systemic edema, and postoperative mechanical ventilation time.
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