Circadian changes in CSF dopaminergic measures in restless legs syndrome
ABSTRACT Restless legs syndrome (RLS) has a circadian component with symptoms being prominent at night. The dopaminergic (DAergic) system, which plays a role in RLS, entails circadian changes that parallel RLS symptom changes. The aim of this study was to look for relative and diurnal differences in DAergic activity.
All RLS subjects were treated prior to their enrollment in the study but were all drug-free for at least 2 weeks prior to evaluation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected at 10 p.m. was used to determine DA-related co-factors and metabolites. These were compared to CSF values collected in a previous study at 10 a.m.
The only significant finding from the 10 p.m. samples (30 RLS; 22 control) was increased 3-ortho-methyldopa (3OMD) for RLS compared to controls. A comparison of the 10 p.m. to 10 a.m. values (16 RLS; 9 controls) showed small, non-significant diurnal changes for controls but large diurnal changes in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), HVA:5HIAA ratio and 3OMD for RLS, with the 10 a.m. sample showing increases in all three CSF factors compared to the 10 p.m. sample.
The greater diurnal changes in RLS suggest greater fluctuations than normal in DAergic circadian dynamics. The increased 3OMD concentration in the absence of concurrent exogenous levodopa (l-dopa) suggests changes in synthesis or metabolism of l-dopa in RLS.
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that there is a genetic basis to restless legs syndrome (RLS) development. Occurrence of antipsychotic-induced RLS could also be due to differences in genetic susceptibility. We investigated whether CLOCK and NPAS2 gene polymorphisms are associated with RLS in schizophrenic patients on antipsychotics because RLS symptoms usually manifest during the evening and night. We assessed symptoms of RLS in 190 Korean schizophrenic patients on antipsychotics and divided the subjects into two groups according to the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group diagnostic criteria: (i) subjects who met all the criteria and (ii) the remaining subjects who did not meet all the criteria. We found a significant difference in the number of subjects with different genotype and allele carrier frequencies for the CLOCK gene (rs2412646) between the two groups (p = 0.031 and 0.010, respectively). Distribution of CLOCK haplotypes (rs2412646-rs1801260) was significantly different between schizophrenic patients with and without RLS (p = 0.021). However, the distributions of allelic, genotypic, and haplotypic variants of NPAS2 (rs2305160 and rs6725296) were not significantly different between the two groups. Our results suggest that CLOCK polymorphisms are associated with increased susceptibility of schizophrenic patients to RLS. We hypothesize that RLS in schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotics may be a very mild akathisia that manifests during the night and is under control of circadian oscillation.Chronobiology International 05/2014; DOI:10.3109/07420528.2014.914034 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom Disease (WED), is a sensorimotor disorder for which the exact pathophysiology remains unclear. Brain iron insufficiency and altered dopaminergic function appear to play important roles in the etiology of the disorder. This concept is based partly on extensive research studies using CSF, autopsy material, and brain imaging indicating reduce regional brain iron and on the clinical efficacy of dopamine receptor agonists for alleviating RLS symptoms. Finding causal relations, linking low brain iron to altered dopaminergic function in RLS, has required however the use of animal models. These models have provided insights into how alterations in brain iron homeostasis and dopaminergic system may be involved in RLS. The results of animal models of RLS and biochemical, postmortem, and imaging studies in patients with the disease suggest that disruptions in brain iron-trafficking lead to disturbances in striatal dopamine neurotransmission for at least some patients with RLS. This review examines the data supporting an iron deficiency–dopamine metabolic theory of RLS by relating the results from animal model investigations of the influence of brain iron deficiency on dopaminergic systems to data from clinical studies in patients with RLS.Sleep Medicine 11/2014; 15(11). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.05.009 · 3.10 Impact Factor