Magnesium and neoplasia: from carcinogenesis to tumor growth and progression or treatment.
ABSTRACT Magnesium is involved in a wide range of biochemical reactions that are crucial to cell proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Changes in magnesium availability have been shown to influence biological responses of immuno-inflammatory cells. Equally plausible seems to be an involvement of magnesium in the multistep and interconnected processes that lead to tumor formation and development; however, the "how" and "when" of such an involvement remain to be defined. Here, we reviewed in vitro and in vivo data that indicated a role for magnesium in many biological and clinical aspects of cancer (from neoplastic transformation to tumor growth and progression or pharmacologic treatment). In adopting this approach we went through a full circle from molecular aspects to observational or epidemiological studies that could reconcile in a unifying picture the otherwise fragmentary or puzzling data currently available on the role of magnesium in cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) antagonise each other in (re)absorption, inflammation and many other physiological activities. Based on mathematical estimation, the absorbed number of Ca or Mg depends on the dietary ratio of Ca to Mg intake. We hypothesise that the dietary Ca/Mg ratio modifies the effects of Ca and Mg on mortality due to gastrointestinal tract cancer and, perhaps, mortality due to diseases occurring in other organs or systems. Prospective studies. Population-based cohort studies (The Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study) conducted in Shanghai, China. 74 942 Chinese women aged 40-70 years and 61 500 Chinese men aged 40-74 years participated in the study. All-cause mortality and disease-specific mortality. In this Chinese population with a low Ca/Mg intake ratio (a median of 1.7 vs around 3.0 in US populations), intakes of Mg greater than US Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) levels (320 mg/day among women and 420 mg/day among men) were related to increased risks of total mortality for both women and men. Consistent with our hypothesis, the Ca/Mg intake ratio significantly modified the associations of intakes of Ca and Mg with mortality risk, whereas no significant interactions between Ca and Mg in relation to outcome were found. The associations differed by gender. Among men with a Ca/Mg ratio >1.7, increased intakes of Ca and Mg were associated with reduced risks of total mortality, and mortality due to coronary heart diseases. In the same group, intake of Ca was associated with a reduced risk of mortality due to cancer. Among women with a Ca/Mg ratio ≤1.7, intake of Mg was associated with increased risks of total mortality, and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and colorectal cancer. These results, if confirmed, may help to understand the optimal balance between Ca and Mg in the aetiology and prevention of these common diseases and reduction in mortality.BMJ Open 01/2013; 3(2). · 1.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The relationship between magnesium and cancer is not as simple as could be assumed from the well-established requirement of magnesium for cell proliferation. Basic and pre-clinical studies indicate that magnesium deficiency can have both anti- and pro-tumour effects. In the present review, we briefly outline the new findings on the role of magnesium in angiogenesis and metastatization, and focus on the relationship between tumour cell proliferation and metabolic reprogramming, discussing how magnesium and its transporters are involved in these processes. The role of magnesium in cancer is also critically examined with regard to mitochondrial function, apoptosis and resistance to treatment. Finally, we bring together the latest experimental evidence indicating that alteration in the expression and/or activity of magnesium channels is a frequent finding in cancer cells and human tumour tissues examined to date, and we discuss the potential implications for developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.Clinical Science 10/2012; 123(7):417-27. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Magnesium is an essential biological cation, participating in whole spectrum of biological functions. It is an irreplaceable factor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, including those that use ATP as chemical energy source. Only about 1% of whole body magnesium is present in plasma. Normal plasma concentrations are in a range: 0.75-1.00 mmol/L. Concentrations lower or higher than in this interval are called hypomagnesemia and hypermagnesemia, respectively. Those are life treathening conditions. Hypomagnesemia requires quick i.v. supplementation with magnesium cation. In addition to hypoamgnesemia, we are nowadays aware of a common “invisible” deficit of magnesium in tissues. This is a result of changing nutrition habits causing an insufficient recommended daily uptake (>300mg daily). Large clinical studies have shown that magnesium status is negatively correlated with incidence and severity of diabetes type 2, metabolic syndrome, hypertension and some arrhythmias. Therefore, food supplementation with magnesium is one of positive therapeutic or prevention options. Future larger clinical studies are expected to provide information on usefulness of supplementation in some other common diseases and syndromes (e.g. migraine, fibromyalgia, coronary artery disease, chronic fatigue syndrome).Rad - Medical Sciences. 11/2013; 39:47-68.