Article

Cardioprotective effects of vegetables: is nitrate the answer?

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
Nitric Oxide (Impact Factor: 3.18). 01/2007; 15(4):359-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.niox.2006.01.013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of certain forms of cancer and cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms behind this protection are not completely understood. Recent epidemiological studies suggest a cardioprotective action afforded specifically by green leafy vegetables. We here propose that these beneficial effects are related to the high content of inorganic nitrate, which in concert with symbiotic bacteria in the oral cavity is converted into nitrite, nitric oxide, and secondary reaction products with vasodilating and tissue-protective properties.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
158 Views
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vegetables may contain significant amounts of nitrate and, therefore, may pose health hazards to consumers by exceeding the accepted daily intake for nitrate. Different hydroponic growing patterns were examined in this work in order to obtain "nitrate free lettuces". Growing lettuces on low nitrate content nutrient solution resulted in a significant decrease in lettuces' nitrate concentrations (1741 versus 39 mg kg(-1)), however, the beneficial effect was cancelled out by an increase in the ambient temperature. Nitrate replacement with ammonium was associated with an important decrease of the lettuces' nitrate concentration (from 1896 to 14 mg kg(-1)) and survival rate. An economically feasible method to reduce nitrate concentrations was the removal of all inorganic nitrogen from the nutrient solution before the exponential growth phase. This method led to lettuces almost devoid of nitrate (10 mg kg(-1)). The dried mass and calcinated mass of lettuces, used as markers of lettuce's quality, were not influenced by this treatment, but a small reduction (18%, p <0.05) in the fresh mass was recorded. The concentrations of nitrite in the lettuces and their modifications are also discussed in the paper. It is possible to obtain "nitrate-free" lettuces in an economically feasible way.
    Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 10/2014; 32(1). DOI:10.1080/19440049.2014.979887
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nitrated fatty acids (NFAs), thought to be produced by nonenzymatic reactions of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) with naturally present unsaturated fatty acids, have recently been identified as one of the largest single pools of biologically active NO derivatives in human plasma. As the biological role of NFAs is unknown, initial in vitro studies have shown them to be potent suppressors of inflammatory responses. The aim of the study was to collect all the literature on NFAs and its interactions with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and review in detail the anti-inflammatory properties of PPAR-γ interceded by NFAs. A literature survey was performed using PubMed and ScienceDirect to gather complete information on NFAs and their interactions with PPAR-γ. An exhaustive literature survey revealed that NFAs found in human plasma and urine comprises a class of cell signaling mediators that can activate PPAR-γ within its physiological concentration. NFAs exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects through PPAR-γ activation in various in vitro models tested. Besides its role in inflammation other properties of NFAs such as inhibition of enzymes, inducer of gene expression, etc., were discussed. NFAs are good electrophiles with pleiotropic biological activities. Hence NFAs can be treated as potent drug candidates.
    International immunopharmacology 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2014.09.009 · 2.21 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
298 Downloads
Available from
May 19, 2014