Chronic insomnia in kidney transplant recipients.
ABSTRACT Recent studies confirmed that sleep disorders have a significant impact on various aspects of health in patients at different stages of chronic kidney disease. At the same time, there is an almost complete lack of information on the prevalence and correlates of insomnia in kidney transplant recipients.
In a cross-sectional study, the Athens Insomnia Scale was used to assess the prevalence of insomnia in a large sample of kidney transplant recipients compared with wait-listed dialysis patients and also a matched group obtained from a nationally representative sample of the Hungarian population.
The prevalence of insomnia was 15% in wait-listed patients, whereas it was only 8% in transplant recipients (P < 0.001), which, in turn, was not different from the prevalence of this sleep problem in the sample of the general population (8%). Prevalences of insomnia in the transplant group were 5%, 7%, and 14% for the groups with glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) greater than 60 mL/min (> 1.00 mL/s), 30 to 60 mL/min (0.50 to 1.00 mL/s), and less than 30 mL/min (< 0.5 mL/s), respectively (P < 0.01). However, estimated GFR was no longer associated significantly with insomnia in the transplant population after statistical adjustment for several covariates. In a multivariate model, insomnia was significantly and independently associated with treatment modality (transplantation versus wait listing), as well as the presence of depression, restless legs syndrome, and high risk for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and with self-reported comorbidity.
The prevalence of insomnia was substantially less in the transplant group than in wait-listed dialysis patients and similar to that observed in the general population. Because this condition potentially is treatable, attention should be directed to the appropriate diagnosis and management of insomnia in the kidney transplant recipient population.
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ABSTRACT: Poor sleep quality (SQ) and daytime sleepiness (DS) are common in renal transplant (RTx) recipients; however, related data are rare. This study describes the prevalence and frequency of self-reported sleep disturbances in RTx recipients. This cross-sectional study included 249 RTx recipients transplanted at three Swiss transplant centers. All had reported poor SQ and / or DS in a previous study. With the Survey of Sleep (SOS) self-report questionnaire, we screened for sleep and health habits, sleep history, main sleep problems and sleep-related disturbances. To determine a basis for preliminary sleep diagnoses according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), 164 subjects were interviewed (48 in person, 116 via telephone and 85 refused). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data and to determine the frequencies and prevalences of specific sleep disorders. The sample had a mean age of 59.1 +/- 11.6 years (60.2% male); mean time since Tx was 11.1 +/- 7.0 years. The most frequent sleep problem was difficulty staying asleep (49.4%), followed by problems falling asleep (32.1%). The most prevalent sleep disturbance was the need to urinate (62.9%), and 27% reported reduced daytime functionality. Interview data showed that most suffered from the first ICSD category: insomnias. Though often disregarded in RTx recipients, sleep is an essential factor of wellbeing. Our findings show high prevalences and incidences of insomnias, with negative impacts on daytime functionality. This indicates a need for further research on the clinical consequences of sleep disturbances and the benefits of insomnia treatment in RTx recipients.BMC Nephrology 10/2013; 14(1):220. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In patients on dialysis, the results of studies examining the association between sleep disorders and inflammation are controversial. We assessed the association between inflammatory markers and different sleep disorders in a large sample of kidney transplant recipients. Cross-sectional study of 100 randomly selected kidney transplant patients who underwent one-night polysomnography ("sleep disorders evaluation in patients after kidney transplantation study") to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS). Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) was utilized to assess the prevalence of insomnia. Sociodemographic information and data about medication, comorbidity and laboratory parameters were collected. Levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein, serum albumin, white blood cell count, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were measured. The mean age was 51 ± 13 years, 43% were women, and the prevalence of diabetes was 19%. We found no significant difference in the levels of inflammatory markers between patients with versus without OSA and PLMS. Apnea-hypopnea index showed a significant association with white blood cell count (ρ = 0.23), and weak (ρ < |0.15|), non-significant correlation with the other inflammatory markers. PLM index showed weak (ρ < |0.15|), non-significant correlation with all markers of inflammation. The serum IL-6 level was significantly higher in patients with insomnia (AIS ≥ 10) than in non-insomniacs [median (IQR): 3.2(2.6-5.1) vs. 1.7(1.2-2.9) ng/l; P = 0.009]. The levels of other inflammatory markers were similar between insomniacs and non-insomniacs. We did not find any association between the presence of objectively assessed sleep disorders and inflammatory markers in kidney transplant patients.International Urology and Nephrology 12/2011; 44(2):607-17. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Racial and ethnic disparities among North American patients with chronic kidney disease have received significant attention. In contrast, little is known about health-related outcomes of patients with end-stage renal disease among the Roma minority, also known as gypsies, compared to Caucasian individuals. We prospectively assessed the association between Roma ethnicity and long-term clinical outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. In a prevalent cohort of renal transplant recipients, followed up over a median of 94 months, we prospectively collected socio-demographic, medical (and transplant related) characteristics and laboratory data at baseline from 60 Roma and 1,003 Caucasian patients (mean age 45 (SD = 11) and 49 (SD = 13) years, 33 and 41% women, 18 and 17% with diabetes mellitus, respectively). Survival analyses examined the associations between Roma ethnicity and all-cause mortality and death-censored graft loss or death with functioning renal allograft. During the follow-up period, 341 patients (32%) died. Two-hundred eighty (26%) patients died with a functioning graft and 201 patients (19%) returned to dialysis. After multivariable adjustments, Roma ethnicity was associated with 77% higher risk of all-cause mortality (Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 3.07), two times higher risk of mortality with functioning graft (2.04 [1.17-3.55]) and 77% higher risk of graft loss (1.77 [1.01-3.13]), respectively. Roma ethnicity is independently associated with increased mortality risk and worse graft outcome in kidney transplant recipients. Further studies should identify the factors contributing to worse outcomes among Roma patients.International Urology and Nephrology 11/2011; 44(3):945-54. · 1.33 Impact Factor