Chronic insomnia in kidney transplant recipients.
ABSTRACT Recent studies confirmed that sleep disorders have a significant impact on various aspects of health in patients at different stages of chronic kidney disease. At the same time, there is an almost complete lack of information on the prevalence and correlates of insomnia in kidney transplant recipients.
In a cross-sectional study, the Athens Insomnia Scale was used to assess the prevalence of insomnia in a large sample of kidney transplant recipients compared with wait-listed dialysis patients and also a matched group obtained from a nationally representative sample of the Hungarian population.
The prevalence of insomnia was 15% in wait-listed patients, whereas it was only 8% in transplant recipients (P < 0.001), which, in turn, was not different from the prevalence of this sleep problem in the sample of the general population (8%). Prevalences of insomnia in the transplant group were 5%, 7%, and 14% for the groups with glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) greater than 60 mL/min (> 1.00 mL/s), 30 to 60 mL/min (0.50 to 1.00 mL/s), and less than 30 mL/min (< 0.5 mL/s), respectively (P < 0.01). However, estimated GFR was no longer associated significantly with insomnia in the transplant population after statistical adjustment for several covariates. In a multivariate model, insomnia was significantly and independently associated with treatment modality (transplantation versus wait listing), as well as the presence of depression, restless legs syndrome, and high risk for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and with self-reported comorbidity.
The prevalence of insomnia was substantially less in the transplant group than in wait-listed dialysis patients and similar to that observed in the general population. Because this condition potentially is treatable, attention should be directed to the appropriate diagnosis and management of insomnia in the kidney transplant recipient population.
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ABSTRACT: Patients undergoing dialysis therapy due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) present a high prevalence of sleep disorders, including restless legs syndrome (RLS). However, the known data generally have been obtained from relatively small patient samples, coming from single or very few dialysis units. Moreover, some data were collected prior to the recent improvements in dialysis techniques, pharmacological therapies and to the establishment of internationally recognised diagnostic criteria for RLS. In order to study the incidence of the different sleep disorders, and of RLS in particular, in a large population of dialysis patients, a questionnaire was administered to all the patients in dialysis units of the 'Triveneto' area (Italy) who agreed to participate. The first part of the questionnaire included questions about demographic data, general medical history, history of renal disease, dialytic treatment and pharmacological therapy. The second part, which was self-administered, explored the patient's complaints about sleep, the presence of the minimal International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) criteria for the diagnosis of RLS, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and questions particularly related to somnolence. Patients whose responses indicated a diagnosis of RLS according to the IRLSSG criteria were requested to answer the 10 questions of the IRLSSG Severity Scale. The same group of patients was compared to those who did not fulfil any of the four minimal criteria for RLS. Statistical analysis was performed by using ANOVA and non-parametric tests. Whenever possible, data were compared with the database of the Veneto Dialysis Register. The first 601 consecutive questionnaires that we were able to analyse are presented in this paper. Applying the IRLSSG criteria for the diagnosis, the percentage of RLS patients in our sample was 21.5%, with a score of 20.5+/-8.7 on the IRLSSG Severity Scale. Comparing patients who are definitely affected by RLS (n=127) with unaffected patients (n=280), we found that the two groups did not differ as to age, sex, weight, body mass index (BMI), and intake of nicotine, alcohol and caffeine. Similarly, the two groups did not differ as to the etiology of ESRD, type of dialysis or percentage of previous transplantations; however, the period of dialysis dependence was significantly lower in the group negative for RLS. The use of drugs did not differ in the two groups, except for lower intake of phosphorus binders and antihypertensive drugs among RLS patients. No patient was receiving specific treatment for RLS. RLS patients reported more fragmented, less restful nightly sleep and more daytime somnolence, more often presented symptoms of other sleep disorders and were more affected by anxiety or depression. The high prevalence of RLS and other sleep disorders among uremics requires careful investigation of nocturnal sleep; although often underdiagnosed, correct identification of these disorders can lead to better therapy and improvement of clinical conditions and quality of life. Sleep fragmentation and sleep deprivation caused by RLS may contribute to the cardiovascular complications and infections, often with bad prognosis in dialysis patients.Sleep Medicine 06/2004; 5(3):309-15. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In a cross-sectional study, we analysed the complex relationship between restless legs syndrome (RLS), insomnia and specific insomnia symptoms and health-related quality of life (QoL) in patients on maintenance dialysis. Data were obtained from 333 patients on chronic maintenance dialysis. To assess the prevalence of RLS, we used the RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ). The Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) was used to assess insomnia and QoL was measured with the Kidney Disease Quality-of-Life Questionnaire. The prevalence of RLS was 14%. The number of comorbid conditions was significantly higher in patients with vs without RLS (median: three vs two; P<0.05). RLS patients were twice as likely to have significant insomnia as patients without RLS (35% vs 16%; P<0.05). Furthermore, RLS was associated with impaired overall sleep quality (median AIS score: 8 vs 4; P<0.01) and poorer QoL. RLS was a significant and independent predictor of several of the QoL domains after statistical adjustment for clinical and socio-demographic covariables. Importantly, this association remained significant even after adjusting for sleep quality. RLS is associated with poor sleep, increased odds for insomnia and impaired QoL in patients on maintenance dialysis. Based on the present results, we suggest that both sleep-related and sleep-independent factors may confer the effect of RLS on QoL.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 04/2005; 20(3):571-7. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insomnia is frequent in the general population and is often related to a psychiatric illness. However, little is known about how the chronicity of insomnia affects this relation and how often subjects with chronic insomnia have antecedents of psychiatric disorders. A total of 14,915 subjects aged from 15 to 100 years representative of the general population of the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, and Portugal were interviewed by telephone using the Sleep-EVAL system. The questionnaire assessed current psychiatric disorders according to the DSM-IV classification and a series of questions assessed the psychiatric history. Insomnia was considered as chronic when it lasted for 6 months or more. The prevalence for insomnia accompanied with impaired daytime functioning was 19.1% and significantly increased with age. More than 90% of these subjects had a chronic insomnia. About 28% of subjects with insomnia had a current diagnosis of mental disorders and 25.6% had a psychiatric history. A DSM-IV insomnia disorder was found in 6.6% of the sample. Presence of severe insomnia, diagnosis of primary insomnia or insomnia related to a medical condition, and insomnia that lasted more than one year were predictors of a psychiatric history. In most cases of mood disorders, insomnia appeared before (> 40%) or in the same time (> 22%) than mood disorder symptoms. When anxiety disorders were involved, insomnia appeared mostly in the same time (>38%) or after (> 34%) the anxiety disorder. The study shows that psychiatric history is closely related to the severity and chronicity of current insomnia. Moreover, chronic insomnia can be a residual symptom of a previous mental disorder and put these subjects to a higher risk of relapse.Journal of Psychiatric Research 01/2003; 37(1):9-15. · 4.07 Impact Factor