Does Eating during Television Viewing Affect Preschool Children’s Intake?

Department of Biobehavioral Health, 315 East Health and Human Development Building, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 05/2006; 106(4):598-600. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2006.01.008
Source: PubMed


The objective of this study was to examine the effects of television (TV) viewing on children's lunch and snack intake in one condition when the children watched a 22-minute cartoon video on TV (TV group), and in another without the TV (no TV group). Participants included 24 children and their parents, recruited from a university child-care center. Parents reported children's TV viewing habits at home. Overall, children ate significantly less snack and lunch in the TV condition compared with the no TV condition. However, children who reportedly watched more daily hours of TV and who had a higher frequency of meals eaten in front of the TV at home ate more lunch in the TV condition. TV viewing may either increase or reduce children's intake, depending on prior experience with eating during TV viewing.

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    • "At times, however, research has found conflicting results, indicating that the impact of distraction may not be as clear-cut as sometimes presented . For example, Martin et al. (2009) and Francis and Birch (2006) found no impact of TV viewing on energy intake, and several studies have found no evidence for social influence on group meals in a laboratory setting or cafeteria (Bellisle et al., 2009; Feunekes et al., 1995). Such variability highlights a role for individual differences and one factor which has been consistently linked with eating behaviour is dietary restraint. "
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of distraction on subsequent eating, 60 females consumed a cereal bar while watching TV, walking or talking, and their subsequent desire to eat and food intake were assessed. No effects were found for desire to eat. But while those higher in restrained eating consumed less overall and fewer calories after watching TV or talking, they consumed more overall and more calories (specifically five times more chocolate) if the cereal bar was eaten while walking. 'Eating on the go' may disinhibit restrained eaters either as a form of distraction or by offering a justification to overeat. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Journal of Health Psychology 08/2015; DOI:10.1177/1359105315595119 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "The principal protagonist was the Disney character Pluto©. The movie consisted of a set of episodes, in accordance with previous studies [7,21]. Following the setting adopted in other studies [7], the commercials referred to the product given to the children and lasted 30 seconds and were in the country-specific language. "
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    ABSTRACT: The inclusion of toys in food packages is a common marketing practice, and it is suspected of promoting obesogenic behaviours. This study aimed to determine whether toys packaged with food are indeed increasing the amount of food eaten by children, and if this effect is enhanced by contemporary exposure to TV and/or advertising. A total of 600 children (balanced according to gender and age groups, 3--6 and 7--10 years old) were randomized in three school facilities in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico and exposed to food (snacks) alone or food associated with toys in an experimental setting. All of the children received the same meal at lunchtime. The products were packages in which chocolate was associated with toys in an egg-shaped container partially filled by chocolate. The children were asked to eat ad libitum for 20 minutes during the afternoon break. In addition, the children were randomized into two groups and either shown or not shown a movie cartoon, with three different levels of exposure to commercials in the TV viewing condition (1, 2 or 3 advertisements). No significant differences emerged between the "toys" and "no toys" groups even after taking into account exposure to TV, commercials and other confounding factors. The inclusion of toys in food packages was not shown per se to lead to an increase in the caloric intake of children.
    Nutrition Journal 07/2013; 12(1):95. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-12-95 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    • "The consumption of healthy items such as fruits and vegetables is lower while the consumption of sweetened beverages, snacks and other energy dense foods are increased (Blass et al., 2006; Coon et al., 2001; Francis, Lee, & Birch, 2003; French et al., 2001; Rey-Lopez et al., 2012; Vader, Walters, Harris, & Hoelscher, 2009). There is evidence that TV viewing delays satiation, reduce satiety signals from previously ingested food and limits the ability of individuals to monitor satiety signals, all together favoring increased energy consumption (Bellisle et al., 2004; Bellissimo, Pencharz, Thomas, & Anderson, 2007; Brunstrom & Mitchell, 2006; Francis & Birch, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Both physical and sedentary activities primarily impact energy balance through energy expenditure, but they also have important implications in term of ingestive behavior. The literature provides scarce evidence on the relationship between daily activities and subsequent nutritional adaptations in children and adolescents. Sedentary activities and physical exercise are generally considered distinctly despite the fact that they represent the whole continuum of daily activity-induced energy expenditure. This brief review paper examines the impact of daily activities (from vigorous physical activity to imposed sedentary behaviors) on acute energy intake control of lean and obese children and adolescents, and whether energy expenditure is the main predictor of subsequent energy intake in this population. After an overview of the available literature, we conclude that both acute physical activity and sedentary behaviors induce food consumption modifications in children and adolescents but also that the important discrepancy between the methodologies used does not allow any clear conclusion so far. When considering energy intake responses according to the level of energy expenditure generated by those activities, it is clear that energy expenditure is not the main predictor of food consumption in both lean and obese children and adolescents. This suggests that other characteristics of those activities may have a greater impact on calorie intake (such as intensity, duration or induced mental stress) and that energy intake may be mainly determined by non-homeostatic pathways that could override the energetic and hormonal signals.
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