Does eating during television viewing affect preschool children's intake?

Department of Biobehavioral Health, 315 East Health and Human Development Building, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 05/2006; 106(4):598-600. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2006.01.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to examine the effects of television (TV) viewing on children's lunch and snack intake in one condition when the children watched a 22-minute cartoon video on TV (TV group), and in another without the TV (no TV group). Participants included 24 children and their parents, recruited from a university child-care center. Parents reported children's TV viewing habits at home. Overall, children ate significantly less snack and lunch in the TV condition compared with the no TV condition. However, children who reportedly watched more daily hours of TV and who had a higher frequency of meals eaten in front of the TV at home ate more lunch in the TV condition. TV viewing may either increase or reduce children's intake, depending on prior experience with eating during TV viewing.

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    • "The consumption of healthy items such as fruits and vegetables is lower while the consumption of sweetened beverages, snacks and other energy dense foods are increased (Blass et al., 2006; Coon et al., 2001; Francis, Lee, & Birch, 2003; French et al., 2001; Rey-Lopez et al., 2012; Vader, Walters, Harris, & Hoelscher, 2009). There is evidence that TV viewing delays satiation, reduce satiety signals from previously ingested food and limits the ability of individuals to monitor satiety signals, all together favoring increased energy consumption (Bellisle et al., 2004; Bellissimo, Pencharz, Thomas, & Anderson, 2007; Brunstrom & Mitchell, 2006; Francis & Birch, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Both physical and sedentary activities primarily impact energy balance through energy expenditure, but they also have important implications in term of ingestive behavior. The literature provides scarce evidence on the relationship between daily activities and subsequent nutritional adaptations in children and adolescents. Sedentary activities and physical exercise are generally considered distinctly despite the fact that they represent the whole continuum of daily activity-induced energy expenditure. This brief review paper examines the impact of daily activities (from vigorous physical activity to imposed sedentary behaviors) on acute energy intake control of lean and obese children and adolescents, and whether energy expenditure is the main predictor of subsequent energy intake in this population. After an overview of the available literature, we conclude that both acute physical activity and sedentary behaviors induce food consumption modifications in children and adolescents but also that the important discrepancy between the methodologies used does not allow any clear conclusion so far. When considering energy intake responses according to the level of energy expenditure generated by those activities, it is clear that energy expenditure is not the main predictor of food consumption in both lean and obese children and adolescents. This suggests that other characteristics of those activities may have a greater impact on calorie intake (such as intensity, duration or induced mental stress) and that energy intake may be mainly determined by non-homeostatic pathways that could override the energetic and hormonal signals.
    Appetite 09/2012; 60. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2012.09.022 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many parents are concerned that exposure to television and computers is affecting their children's health, particularly weight gain. This is especially true given the dramatic rise in overweight children over the last few decades. The percentage of overweight preschoolers has more than doubled since the 1970s.3 In a 2003-2004 study, 26% of children this age were overweight or at risk of becoming overweight.4 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classifies children as "overweight" if their body mass index (BMI) is above the 95th percentile, and "at risk of being overweight" if they are between the 85th and 95th percentiles.5 An overweight child is four times more likely than a normal weight child to become an overweight adult.6 The trend of children becoming overweight is a serious health concern, as children who are overweight are at greater risk for health problems such as asthma, respiratory ailments, sleep apnea, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, orthopedic problems, and depression.7 Given the central role of media in American life and its possible role in childhood weight problems, parents should be aware of how television and computers can impact the health and weight status of young children.
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    ABSTRACT: With the modernization of societies, daily living, school, chores and work tasks are less energy demanding and sedentary behaviors such as television viewing and video game playing are pervasive, particularly in children and adolescents. This sedentary behavior constellation has contributed to the progression of overweight and obesity. The low energy expenditure associated to daily sedentary behaviors has been postulated as the primary mechanism to explain population weight gain; however, recent evidence reveals that many sedentary behaviors also promote overconsumption of food. The present paper summarizes the available literature about the impact of sedentary behaviors on energy intake and appetite sensations in children and adolescents. Overall, screen-based sedentary behaviors (e.g., television viewing and video game playing) stimulate food intake in children and youth, while the influence of non-screen sedentary behaviors on feeding behavior remains largely unexplored. As in adults, insufficient sleep and waked resting positions (sitting or bed rest) are associated with increased energy consumption. Because all of these activities increase energy intake in the absence of hunger, the hedonic (rewarding) component of eating behavior seems to play an important role. At present, public health recommendations focus on increasing physical activity energy expenditure and reducing sedentary time in children and youth. From an energy balance standpoint, the impact of modern sedentary behaviors on food consumption should also be considered if we want to curb childhood obesity. A better understanding of the physiological, psychological and sociological mechanisms involved in the nutritional adaptations to sedentary activities is needed to more adequately elucidate the interplay between sedentary behaviors, feeding behaviors and obesity.
    03/2012; 2(1). DOI:10.1007/s13679-012-0032-9
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