Article

Two serine proteases from Anopheles dirus haemocytes exhibit changes in transcript abundance after infection of an incompatible rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii.

Department of Pathobiology, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, PR China.
Veterinary Parasitology (Impact Factor: 2.38). 06/2006; 139(1-3):93-101. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.02.017
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Serine proteases are involved in regulation of innate immune responses, such as haemolymph coagulation, melanization reaction and antimicrobial peptide synthesis. Although several serine proteases have been characterized in Anopheles gambiae (A. gambiae), few were cloned from other malaria vectors. In this study, we identified three cDNA fragments of serine proteases (AdSp1, AdSp2 and AdSp3) from haemocytes of an oriental malaria vector, Anopheles dirus (A. dirus), by cloning of fragments amplified with degenerate primers into the T-vector. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that both AdSp1 and AdSp3 genes were also expressed in salivary gland. Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) search found that both AdSp1 and AdSp3 were highly similar in sequence to A. gambiae Sp14A and Sp14D2, insects prophenoloxidase activating enzyme (PPAE) and Drosophila protease easter. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated the transcription level of both AdSp1 and AdSp3 in haemocytes of A. dirus infected with Plasmodium yoelii (P. yoelii) was significant higher than that fed on 5% glucose or normal mouse blood at 7 days after the infectious meal (p<0.05), when P. yoelii oocysts began to be melanized by A. dirus. Our results indicated that both AdSp1 and AdSp3 might play an important role during melanotic encapsulation of P. yoelii by A. dirus.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
124 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because of the lack of an effective and economical control strategy against malaria (the most devastating infectious disease in developing countries) Transmission-Blocking Vaccines (TBVs) concept has been raised in recent years, promising a more efficient way to malaria control. TBVs aim at interfering and/or blocking pathogen development within the vector, halting transmission to non-infected vertebrate host. Aminopeptidase N (APN) is one of the most potent proteins in parasite development in Anopheles malaria vectors, which is strongly co-localized with human malaria parasites in the mosquito midgut epithelium. Therefore, Aminopeptidase N is one of the best choices for a new TBV. In this study for the first time we used 3'-RACE to amplify APN gene in Anopheles stephensi (An.stephensi), a major malaria vector in Iran, Indian subcontinent up to China by using different sets of primers including exon junction, conserved and specific region primers. Full length of APN was sequenced stepwise, which could be applied in designing a new regional TBV and act as an essential component of malaria elimination program in An.stephensi distribution areas. Primers design and method modification should be set up exactly in approach based amplifications. From results we came to this conclusion that that 3'-RACE could be applied to amplified key regions which are beyond reach.
    Avicenna journal of medical biotechnology. 07/2012; 4(3):131-41.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review of open-ended tritrophic relations deals with the interactions of se­veral major pathogenic fungal species and their insect hosts, resident on di­fferent plants and how such interactions are affected by the physiology of these organisms in a changing environment.
    12/2009: pages 289-326;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus, a ubiquitous mosquito, is one of the main vectors of dengue and yellow fever, representing an important threat to public health worldwide. Peptidases play key roles in processes such as digestion, oogenesis, and metamorphosis of insects. However, most of the information on the proteolytic enzymes of mosquitoes is derived from insects in the adult stages and is often directed towards the understanding of blood digestion. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of active peptidases from the preimaginal stages of Ae. albopictus. METHODS: Ae. albopictus eggs, larvae, and pupae were analyzed using zymography with susbtrate-SDS-PAGE. The pH, temperature and peptidase inhibitor sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, the proteolytic activities of larval instars were assayed using the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. RESULTS: The proteolytic profile of the larval stage was composed of 8 bands ranging from 17 to 130 kDa. These enzymes displayed activity in a broad range of pH values, from 5.5 to 10.0. The enzymatic profile of the eggs was similar to that of the larvae, although the proteolytic bands of the eggs showed lower intensities. The pupal stage showed a complex proteolytic pattern, with at least 6 bands with apparent molecular masses ranging from 30 to 150 kDa and optimal activity at pH 7.5. Peptidases from larval instars were active from 10[degree sign]C to 60[degree sign]C, with optimal activity at temperatures between 37[degree sign]C and 50[degree sign]C. The proteolytic profile of both the larval and pupal stages was inhibited by phenyl-methyl sulfonyl-fluoride (PMSF) and Nalpha-Tosyl L-lysine chloromethyl ketone hydrochloride (TLCK), indicating that the main peptidases expressed during these developmental stages are trypsin-like serine peptidases. CONCLUSION: The preimaginal stages of Ae. albopictus exhibited a complex profile of trypsin-like serine peptidase activities. A comparative analysis of the active peptidase profiles revealed differential expression of trypsin-like isoforms among the preimaginal stages, suggesting that some of these enzymes are stage specific. Additionally, a comparison of the peptidase expression between larvae from eggs collected in the natural environment and larvae obtained from the eggs of female mosquitoes maintained in colonies for a long period of time demonstrated that the proteolytic profile is invariable under such conditions.
    Parasites & Vectors 02/2013; 6(1):50. · 3.25 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
7 Downloads
Available from
Jun 4, 2014

Similar Publications