The Use of PolilightR in the Detection of Seminal Fluid, Saliva, and Bloodstains and Comparison with Conventional Chemical-Based Screening Tests

Victoria Police Forensic Services Center, Macleod, VIC 3085, Australia.
Journal of Forensic Sciences (Impact Factor: 1.16). 04/2006; 51(2):361-70. DOI: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00065.x
Source: PubMed


Biological stains can be difficult to detect at crime scenes or on items recovered from crime scenes. The use of a versatile light source may assist in their detection. The ability of Polilight to locate potential semen, saliva, and blood stains on a range of substrates and at different dilutions was tested. We also tested the use of Polilight in comparison with conventional chemical-based presumptive screening tests such as acid phosphatase (AP), Phadebas, and luminol, often used in casework for detecting potential semen, saliva, and blood stains, respectively. The Polilight was able to locate stains that were not apparent to the naked eye. The color of the material on which a stain is deposited can have an effect on the detectibility of the stain. The Polilight was found to be comparable with the AP and Phadebas tests in terms of its sensitivity. In a comparative study between the AP test and Polilight on 40 casework exhibits, one false-negative result was observed when using the Polilight. On a series of mock casework exhibits it was determined that the Polilight can be used successfully to locate saliva stains for DNA analysis. The sensitivity of luminol for detecting potential bloodstains was greater than that of Polilight; however the Polilight has particular application in instances where a bloodstain may have been concealed with paint. Overall, the Polilight is a relatively safe, simple, noninvasive, and nondestructive technique suitable for use in forensic casework.

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    • "Since then, use of this lamp by forensic analysts has spread worldwide. Subsequent studies using the Polilight lamp showed instrumental optimizations for the detection of semen stains on fabrics (cotton, wool and polyester) [31] and enhancement in the detection of blood, semen and saliva stains deposited on colored clothes made of cotton, nylon or polyester in comparison to conventional tests based on chemical reagents (luminol, acid phosphatase and amylase tests) [26]. In addition, many other UV- Vis lamps other than Polilight have been developed and used for locating body-fluid stains at crime scenes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Body fluids are evidence of great interest in forensics because they allow identification of individuals through the study of DNA. After reviewing the tests and the methods that are currently being used by forensic practitioners for the detection of body fluids (e.g., blood, semen, saliva, vaginal fluid, urine and sweat), and after showing their main drawbacks and limitations, this work focuses on the review of emerging spectrometric techniques applied for the forensic analysis of body fluids. These techniques include the use of ultraviolet-visible, infrared (IR), Raman, X-ray fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry for investigating blood, semen, saliva, urine, vaginal fluid or sweat. Although all these spectrometric techniques seem to have a high potential to differentiate body fluids prior to DNA extraction, IR and Raman spectroscopy have shown the most promising results for discriminating stains from body fluids.
    01/2015; 64:53-63. DOI:10.1016/j.trac.2014.08.011
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    • "Currently there are techniques that can detect certain types of biological fluids such as semen using different wavelengths of light which can cause fluorescence. Chemical reagents such as luminol can be used for blood detection and amylase tests for saliva, these methods however do not detect DNA [5]. For the detection of latent fingermarks there are many techniques available such as powder dusting and cyanoacrylate fuming on non-porous substrates and reagents such as DFO and ninhydrin that react with the amino acids on porous substrates [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: DNA is deposited onto a surface by touch yet few means have been developed for its in situ detection. A range of dyes are available that bind to DNA at high specificity and here we report on the use of two of these dyes to detect latent DNA. SYBR® Green I and GelGreen were used to detect DNA within fingermarks after fingers and thumbs were pressed onto a range of substrates such as Parafilm®. A solution of dye was then pipetted onto the mark and allowed to dry briefly. There was a high level of fluorescence where the fingermark was present indicating the dye had bound to DNA however a low level of fluorescence was present in the negative controls. To determine whether this background fluorescence was due to bacteria present on the substrates the dyes were pipetted onto a bacterial culture and the level of fluorescence was observed. It was found that SYBR® Green I had a higher level of fluorescence compared with GelGreen™ and that both dyes fluoresce when in the presence of bacterial cells. By altering the volume and concentration of dye, ridge detail within the fingermark may be observed allowing for the possibility of not only detecting latent DNA but also using this method for human identification and fingermark comparison.
    Forensic Science International Genetics Supplement Series 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.fsigss.2013.10.148
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    • "An alternate light source (ALS) can be used as a finding aid to detect certain biological materials, including semen [1] [7]. Some commercial ALS instruments have been developed such as the Wood's Lamp [8], Bluemaxx TM BM500 [9], Polilight 1 [10], and the Lumatec Superlight 400 [11], but these are not exclusive to semen identification and can only be used for initial detection. Popular presumptive tests for seminal acid phosphatase (SAP) [1] [12] are much more reliable, but they are destructive to the sample and there is still some potential for false positive results. "
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    ABSTRACT: Traces of human body fluids, such as blood, saliva, sweat, semen and vaginal fluid, play an increasingly important role in forensic investigations. However, a nondestructive, easy and rapid identification of body fluid traces at the scene of a crime has not yet been developed. The obstacles have recently been addressed in our studies, which demonstrated the considerable potential of Raman spectroscopy. In this study, we continued to build a full library of body fluid spectroscopic signatures. The problems concerning vaginal fluid stain identification were addressed using Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Calculated characteristic Raman and fluorescent spectral components were used to build a multidimensional spectroscopic signature of vaginal fluid, which demonstrated good specificity and was able to handle heterogeneous samples from different donors.
    Forensic science international 09/2011; 216(1-3):44-8. DOI:10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.08.015 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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