Response Versus Remission in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
ABSTRACT To investigate rates of response and remission in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) after 12 weeks of evidence-based treatment.
Post hoc analyses of response and remission were conducted using data from a multisite, randomized, controlled trial comparing the effects of 12 weeks of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP), clomipramine (CMI), their combination (EX/RP+CMI), or pill placebo (PBO) in 122 adults with OCD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV criteria). Response was defined as a decrease in symptoms; remission was defined as minimal symptoms after treatment. Different response and remission definitions were constructed based on criteria used in prior studies. For each definition, the proportion of responders or remitters in each treatment group was then compared.
There were significant differences (p<.05) among the 4 treatment groups in the proportion of responders and remitters. In pairwise comparisons, EX/RP+CMI and EX/RP each produced significantly more responders and remitters than PBO; CMI produced significantly more responders and remitters than PBO for some definitions but not for others. When remission was defined as a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) score of 12 or less, significantly more EX/RP+CMI (18/31 [58%]) and EX/RP (15/29 [52%]) patients entering treatment achieved remission than either CMI (9/36 [25%]) or PBO (0/26 [0%]) patients. However, even in treatment completers, many CMI and some EX/RP+CMI and EX/RP patients did not achieve remission (remission rates for YBOCS<or=12: EX/RP+CMI=13/19 [68%]; EX/RP=15/21 [71%]; CMI=8/27 [30%]; PBO=0/20 [0%]).
EX/RP (with or without CMI) can lead to superior treatment outcome compared with CMI alone in OCD patients without comorbid depression. However, many OCD patients who receive evidence-based treatment do not achieve remission.
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ABSTRACT: This narrative review gathers together a range of international experts to critically appraise the existing trial-based evidence relating to the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults. We discuss the diagnostic evaluation and clinical characteristics followed by treatment options suitable for the clinician working from primary through to specialist psychiatric care. Robust data supports the effectiveness of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and clomipramine in the short-term and the longer-term treatment and for relapse prevention. Owing to better tolerability, SSRIs are acknowledged as the first-line pharmacological treatment of choice. For those patients for whom first line treatments have been ineffective, evidence supports the use of adjunctive antipsychotic medication, and some evidence supports the use of high-dose SSRIs. Novel compounds are also the subject of active investigation. Neurosurgical treatments, including ablative lesion neurosurgery and deep brain stimulation, are reserved for severely symptomatic individuals who have not experienced sustained response to both pharmacological and cognitive behavior therapies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Psychiatry Research 02/2015; 227(1). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.12.003 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. As relapse after completed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is common, many treatment protocols include booster programs to improve the long-term effects. However, the effects of booster programs are not well studied. In this study, we investigated the long-term efficacy of Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support for OCD with or without an Internet-based booster program. Method. A total of 101 participants were included in the long-term follow-up analysis of ICBT. Of these, 93 were ran-domized to a booster program or no booster program. Outcome assessments were collected at 4, 7, 12 and 24 months after receiving ICBT. Results. The entire sample had sustained long-term effects from pre-treatment to all follow-up assessments, with large within-group effect sizes (Cohen's d = 1.58–2.09). The booster group had a significant mean reduction in OCD symptoms compared to the control condition from booster baseline (4 months) to 7 months, but not at 12 or 24 months. Participants in the booster group improved significantly in terms of general functioning at 7, 12 and 24 months, and had fewer relapses. Kaplan–Meier analysis also indicated a significantly slower relapse rate in the booster group. Conclusions. The results suggest that ICBT has sustained long-term effects and that adding an Internet-based booster program can further improve long-term outcome and prevent relapse for some OCD patients.Psychological Medicine 02/2014; 44(13). DOI:10.1017/S0033291714000543 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective:It is unknown what next-step strategies are being used in clinical practice for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who do not respond to first-line treatment. As part of a cross-sectional study of OCD, treatment and symptom information was collected.Method:Consecutive OCD out-patients in nine international centers were evaluated by self-report measures and clinical/structured interviews. OCD symptom severity was evaluated by the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S). Clinical response to current treatment was evaluated by the CGI-Improvement Scale (CGI-I ≤ 2).Results:In total, 361 participants reported taking medication; 77.6% were taking a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; 50% reported use of at least one augmentation strategy. Antipsychotics were most often prescribed as augmenters (30.3%), followed by benzodiazepines (24.9%) and antidepressants (21.9%). No differences in OCD symptom severity were found between patients taking different classes of augmentation agents.Conclusions:Results from this international cross-sectional study indicate that current OCD treatment is in line with evidence-based treatment guidelines. Although augmentation strategies are widely used, no significant differences in OCD symptom severity were found between monotherapy and augmentation or between different therapeutic agents.Journal of Psychopharmacology 01/2014; DOI:10.1177/0269881113517955 · 2.81 Impact Factor