An efficient helper-virus-free method for rescue of recombinant paramyxoviruses and rhadoviruses from a cell line suitable for vaccine development.
ABSTRACT Recovery of recombinant, negative-strand, nonsegmented RNA viruses from a genomic cDNA clone requires a rescue system that promotes de novo assembly of a functional ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex in the cell cytoplasm. This is accomplished typically by cotransfecting permissive cells with multiple plasmids that encode the positive-sense genomic RNA, the nucleocapsid protein (N or NP), and the two subunits of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L and P). The transfected plasmids are transcribed in the cell cytoplasm by phage T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP), which usually is supplied by infection with a recombinant vaccinia virus or through use of a stable cell line that expresses the polymerase. Although both methods of providing T7 RNAP are effective neither is ideal for viral vaccine development for a number of reasons. Therefore, it was necessary to modify existing technology to make it possible to routinely rescue a variety of recombinant viruses when T7 RNAP was provided by a cotransfected expression plasmid. Development of a broadly applicable procedure required optimization of the helper-virus-free methodology, which resulted in several modifications that improved rescue efficiency such as inclusion of plasmids encoding viral glycoproteins and matrix protein, heat shock treatment, and use of electroporation. The combined effect of these enhancements produced several important benefits including: (1) a helper-virus-free methodology capable of rescuing a diverse variety of paramyxoviruses and recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV); (2) methodology that functioned effectively when using Vero cells, a suitable substrate for vaccine production; and (3) a method that enabled rescue of highly attenuated recombinant viruses, which had proven refractory to rescue using published procedures.
Article: Attenuation and efficacy of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) vaccine candidates containing stabilized mutations in the P/C and L genes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Two recombinant, live attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) mutant viruses have been developed, using a reverse genetics system, for evaluation as potential intranasal vaccine candidates. These rHPIV1 vaccine candidates have two non-temperature sensitive (non-ts) attenuating (att) mutations primarily in the P/C gene, namely CR84GHNT553A (two point mutations used together as a set) and CDelta170 (a short deletion mutation), and two ts att mutations in the L gene, namely LY942A (a point mutation), and LDelta1710-11 (a short deletion), the last of which has not been previously described. The latter three mutations were specifically designed for increased genetic and phenotypic stability. These mutations were evaluated on the HPIV1 backbone, both individually and in combination, for attenuation, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in African green monkeys (AGMs). The rHPIV1 mutant bearing the novel LDelta1710-11 mutation was highly ts and attenuated in AGMs and was immunogenic and efficacious against HPIV1 wt challenge. The rHPIV1-CR84G/Delta170HNT553ALY942A and rHPIV1-CR84G/Delta170HNT553ALDelta1710-11 vaccine candidates were highly ts, with shut-off temperatures of 38 degrees C and 35 degrees C, respectively, and were highly attenuated in AGMs. Immunization with rHPIV1-CR84G/Delta170HNT553ALY942A protected against HPIV1 wt challenge in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. In contrast, rHPIV1-CR84G/Delta170HNT553ALDelta1710-11 was not protective in AGMs due to over-attenuation, but it is expected to replicate more efficiently and be more immunogenic in the natural human host. The rHPIV1-CR84G/Delta170HNT553ALY942A and rHPIV1-CR84G/Delta170HNT553ALDelta1710-11 vaccine candidates are clearly highly attenuated in AGMs and clinical trials are planned to address safety and immunogenicity in humans.Virology Journal 02/2007; 4:67. · 2.34 Impact Factor