A bioenergetic biomagnification model for the animal kingdom.

School of Resource & Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada V5A 1S6.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.48). 04/2006; 40(5):1581-7. DOI: 10.1021/es051800i
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Species vary greatly in the degree to which they accumulate dietary contaminants. Bioenergetic processes play a key role in chemical uptake and elimination, and interspecific variation in bioaccumulation can be attributed in large part to variation in how species feed, digest, and allocate energy. We present a quantitative treatment of this relationship for the entire animal kingdom. We derive a model to predict the biomagnification factor for nonmetabolizable, slowly eliminated chemicals, BMF(max). We test the model with observed biomagnification factors and independently derived bioenergetic parameters for a diverse suite of species, including herbivores and carnivores, heterotherms and homeotherms, vertebrates and invertebrates, adults and juveniles, domestic/laboratory animals and wild individuals from freshwater, marine, and terrestrial environments. The model successfully predicts species-specific BMF(max) values across this range of taxa, with values ranging from less than 1 in caterpillars to nearly 100 in some carnivores. In addition, we make novel predictions of BMF(max) for several taxa for which no measured bioaccumulation data are available. Our analysis provides new insights into the role of ecology in chemical dynamics across the animal kingdom, providing a general framework for understanding how characteristics of an organism and its ecological context influence the degree to which that organism accumulates chemicals present in its diet.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interdisciplinary research regarding the pesticide DDT has been ongoing since its synthesis in 1874, with thousands of publications appearing in the literature. The present review, on the 50th anniversary of the publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson, examines the state of knowledge regarding the presence and toxicity of DDT in two groups of top predators in the aquatic environment, mammals and birds. The objective is to outline the essential chemical information available on the fate of this most renowned persistent organic pollutant in the context of other lipophilic contaminants, as much in terms of the abiotic environment as for the tissue distribution of DDT derivatives. The facts associated with bioaccumulation and biotransformation as well as linkages to more and less known toxic effects are presented. The discussion highlights the better understanding derived from bird investigations initiated owing to the discovery of avian reproductive effects, in contrast to the challenges faced in research on marine mammals. Eggshell thinning was observed when there were fewer industrial chemicals in use, while in the 21st century the plethora of xenobiotics entering the food web increased exponentially. A discussion of sediment quality guidelines as well as tissue guidelines is presented to explain the derivation of threshold concentrations for toxic effects. Recommendations are made to continue research on environmental contaminants entering the food chain, covering more POP and relevant toxic endpoints. Developments to replace DDT are highlighted alongside the cautionary principle, plus the regulation program launched in Europe in 2002 that will be implemented in 2020 to replace harmful chemicals.
    Environmental Reviews 01/2012; 21(1). DOI:10.1139/er-2012-0054 · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology 01/2014; 227:107-55. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-01327-5_4 · 3.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this note is to discuss the relevance of the interaction/integration of monitoring of contaminants for the protection of the marine environment and for human health safety (descriptors 8 and 9, respectively) within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The identification of possible relations between contaminant levels in sediments and tissues of fish and other seafood, as well as the association of those levels to pollution sources, are major challenges for marine researchers. The Spanish initial assessment in the North-East Atlantic marine region was used as an example to show some gaps and loopholes when dealing with the relationship between descriptors 8 and 9. The main problem to deal with is that monitoring programmes intended for the assessment of marine environmental quality and for human health safety usually apply different approaches and methodologies, and even different tissues are analysed in some species (mainly fish). It is therefore recommended to make a profound revision of current sampling strategies, procedures and methodologies, including the selection of target species and tissues and to improve the traceability of samples of fish and other seafood for human consumption. On the other hand, despite the scope of descriptor 9 which is limited to commercially relevant species, this fact should not be an obstacle in the application of the 'ecosystem approach' within the MSFD. In order to appropriately solve these shortcomings, an information exchange system between authorities dealing with descriptors 8 and 9 should be strongly encouraged for the next steps of the MSFD's implementation.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 07/2014; 21(23). DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-3283-z · 2.76 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 6, 2014